Salva Guardia

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The Salva Guardia (from Italian salvaguardia for protection, preservation and guardia for guards, guards) was a letter of protection and safe conduct that was originally awarded by the German emperor.

The simplest forms of the Salva Guardia were a letter of safe conduct , which was supposed to enable merchants and ambassadors to safely cross border or front lines, and a letter of protection that forbade attacks on buildings and settlements. Failure to do so was subject to penalty and imperial disgrace. From the Thirty Years' War to the beginning of the 20th century, permits approved by a commander and deployed guards were referred to as Salvaguardia or French Sauvegarde .

Salvaguardia shield of the Imperial Post Office around 1770

With the Schwarzer Adler-Privilegium or Salva Guardia-Privilegium , individuals, families and corporations were placed under the protection of the emperor and the empire in a hereditary or permanent way . The term Schwarzer Adler-Privilegium describes figuratively the right to post the imperial eagle or a corresponding coat of arms on one's own land and property in order to indicate to the outside world the protection and privileges. These consisted of freedom of billeting , protection from incarceration and special rights with regard to customs duties, taxes and jurisdiction.

In addition to the Salva Guardia, other similar privileges were awarded in the case of nobility :

  • Protection and shield
  • Freedom from foreign courts

The best-known examples of these privileges were the Kaisersteinbruch with individual masters, the Imperial Post Office for corporations and the Thurn and Taxis family as a family .


  • Johanne Pradel: The Viennese councilors in the first third of the 17th century , Diss. Univ. Wien, Vienna 1972, Volume 1, Pages 22-25

See also

Web links

Commons : Salva Guardia  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Gerhard Fritz: City and Monastery of Murrhardt in the Late Middle Ages and the Reformation , J. Thorbecke, 1990, page 117 - Google Books (snippet view)
  2. Alex Buchner, Volker Büchner: Bavaria in the Thirty Years' War: the Swedes between Lech and Isar , Verlagsanstalt Bayerland, 2002, page 179 - Google Books (snippet view)
  3. Ingomar Bog: The rural economy in the age of the Thirty Years War , Veste Verlag, 1952, page 162 - Google Books (snippet view)
  4. Heike Spiegel: Nobilitation in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna Nobilitation, freedom from foreign courts, protection and protection, Salva Guardia
  5. ^ Johann Adolf, J. Tomaschek: The highest jurisdiction of the German king and empire in the XV. Century , KK Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, 1865, page 89 ff. - Uni Kiel digital