Protection zone for radio equipment
A protection zone for radio equipment is a geographical area in which legal regulations restrict the operation or installation of sources of electromagnetic radiation.
The restriction (through laws , ordinances and technical instructions on such) applies in comparison to the surroundings of the area, in which the legal provisions either do not apply, or apply in a more general or less strict form. The nature of such regulations differs from country to country. If strict regulations apply to entire nation states, one usually does not speak of a protection zone, since protection zones themselves arise from national legislation. Protection zones are often circular with a defined radius around a facility such as B. radio telescopes, but there are also specially formed protection zones, for example around airports , which take into account the protection of communication with approaching or taking off aircraft.
The aim of such a protection zone is to protect technical equipment from electromagnetic interference. The establishment of a protection zone is particularly necessary if the system to be protected is particularly sensitive or of great importance for the safety of human life or a country. Particularly worthy of protection obtain z. B.
- Airports, because of the severe consequences of avionics and radio interference during take-off and landing
- Radio telescopes, due to the high sensitivity of the receivers
- military radio equipment, because of its high priority.
The Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) is a large area (protection zone) in which radio broadcasts and other sources of potential electronic interference are strictly controlled. The controls in the protection zone are designed in such a way that the highly sensitive radio telescopes can receive extremely weak signals from space.
In 2007 the concept of the Starlight Reserves by UNESCO, the WHC (World Heritage Commission) and the IAU (International Astronomical Union) within the framework of the Astronomy and World Heritage initiative and the Man and the Biosphere ( MaB ) program Urban Ecology Program was presented at the conference created on the Canary Island of La Palma (" Right to the starry sky "). The protection against “radismog” - analogous to “ light smog ” in the visual area - was expressly included in the Starlight Astronomy Site area category (for outstanding observation sites ). In 2010, a study by the IAU and ICOMOS was officially noted that natural sky darkness is in principle a subject of protection as part of the UNESCO World Heritage . Therefore, radio silence should also be seen as a legacy for all of humanity.
The following protected areas exist in Australia:
- Mid-West Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), established in 2005 for the Murchison Widefield Array ; meanwhile also for the square kilometer array currently being planned; without any AM / FM reception (150 kilometers radius, frequencies 70 MHz-25.25 GHz)
Notification Zones - systems subject to notification and authorization and restricted to limit values; Gradation depending on frequency and distance (the higher, the lower):
- Parkes Observatory (200 km radius, frequencies 1.25–26 GHz)
- Paul Wild Observatory Narrabri (250 km radius, frequencies 1.25–26 GHz)
- Mopra Observatory Coonabarabran (150 km radius, frequencies 1.25–26 GHz)
- Mount Pleasant Observatory Hobart (100 km radius, frequencies 1.25–26 GHz excluding the 5, 6 and 6.7 GHz bands)
- Ceduna Observatory (120 km radius, frequencies 2.2–26 GHz)
- Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex Tidbinbilla (120 km radius, frequencies 1.25–26 GHz except 18 and 22 GHz bands)
The protection zones are enacted, monitored and published by the Federal Network Agency in Germany through statutory ordinances and the general administrative regulations resulting from the design of the radio equipment and the nature of the radio equipment . In addition, the Federal Network Agency draws up the frequency usage plan in which the entire frequency spectrum is assigned to the various radio services. So z. B. the amateur bands for the amateur radio service, CB radio, commercial radio to companies and individual frequencies to radio stations or broadcasters.
One of the other tasks of the Federal Network Agency is to ensure efficient and interference-free use of frequencies.
CB radio protection zone
The channels 41 to 80 of the CB radio are not harmonized at European level, so there is a protection zone along the borders with other countries. A list of the counties, cities and regions that are located within the protection zones can be found in the general frequency allocation for CB radio.
Freenet (everyone's radio)
The use of the Freenet frequencies 149.01875 MHz to 149.11875 MHz is not permitted in the Black Forest and on the Swabian Alb in locations above 600 m.
Ground radar protection zone
The operation of ground penetrating radars is completely prohibited in special protection zones.
The protection zones are defined as the radius around airports, military airfields and radio astronomy systems and range from 1 km at civil airports to 22 km around radio astronomical systems.
Protection zone for short-range motor vehicle radar
The operation of short-range motor vehicle radar in the frequency range 21.65–26.65 GHz is permitted within a radius of 6.5 km from the Effelsberg radio telescope if a certain EIRP is not exceeded. Otherwise the radar must be equipped with an automatic or manual switch-off device.
Level radar protection zone
For the use of industrially used level radar devices with frequencies from 6 to 85 GHz, a protection zone has been set up exclusively for radio astronomy locations in Effelsberg and Wettzell . The radius of the protection zone, within which the operation of level radars is subject to increased requirements, is between 1.1 and 16.6 km, depending on the frequency used.
Further protection zones
- Protection zones around TV transmitters for amateur radio service in the 50.08-51.00 MHz range (repealed by Official Gazette No. 24/2007 page 4729, Order 69/2007)
- Protection zones with a radius of 10 km for UWB applications (Vfg. 9/2010 in the Federal Network Agency's official gazette) by a total of 18 geographical points. The use of the interference reduction technology (LDC) is restricted or prohibited.
- Airport protection zones for GNSS repeaters. In these protection zones, GNSS repeaters are subject to special approval and commissioning requirements (VVGNSSRp of the Federal Network Agency)
- Protection zones of the testing and measuring services of the Federal Network Agency These protection zones around the relevant Federal Network Agency facilities generally exist but are frequency-dependent, but the radii are only communicated to the radio equipment installers upon request. Are affected
- all short term approvals
- Aviation radio systems (see VVFlufu, Federal Network Agency)
- Satellite radio (see VVSatFu)
- Non-public land radio (see VVNömL)
- BOS radio
The United States' National Radio Quiet Zone (NRQZ) is the largest radio protection zone in the United States. It covers a nearly square area of 34,000 km² in West Virginia and Virginia . Within the area are the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Sugar Grove Station of the US Navy and NSA.
- Protection criteria used for radio astronomical measurements (PDF; 159 kB) RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA.769-2 .
- Radio Quiet Zones around European Radio Astronomy Stations , Radio Observatories in Europe , both Committee on Radio Astronomy Frequencies , craf.eu
- Radio astronomy stations operating in the Asia-Pacific Region , Radio Astronomy Frequency Committee in the Asia-Pacific region , atnf.csiro.au/rafcap
- World Radio Telescopes And Radio Quiet Zones - Google Maps, based on Harvey Liszt ( MD.txt , cv.nrao.edu)
- UNESCO-WHC, UNESCO - IAU, CIE, OTPC-IAC (ed.): Starlight Reserve. Concept - Dimensions - Categories - Criteria . Recommendations. March 2009, 4th Categories and Section Zonation Criteria , p. 12 ff. resp. 19th ff . ( pdf, starlight2007.net ).
ICOMOS, IAU; Clive Ruggles, Michel Cotte ( arr .): Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study . June 30, 2010 ( astronomicalheritage.org ( memento of the original from July 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note .; Ocarinabooks. com ( Memento of the original from November 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ); The UNESCO World Heritage Committee confirmed the study on astronomy and world heritage at its 34th meeting , kuffner-sternwarte.at
- Notification Zones for Apparatus Licensed Services around Radio Astronomy Facilities ( Memento of the original dated December 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Radiocommunications Assignment and Licensing Instruction RALI MS 31, Sequence Number 167, 7/8/2006, esp. 3.0 Notification Zones , p. 6 f (pdf, acma.gov.au; 106 kB)
- Vfg. 37/2005, last amended by Vfg. 77/2011 Official Gazette of the Federal Network Agency General allocation of frequencies for use by the general public for CB radio
- Vfg 1/2007 Official Journal of the Federal Network Agency ( Memento of the original dated November 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Vfg 14/2011 Official Journal of the Federal Network Agency ( Memento of the original dated November 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. General assignment of frequencies for non-public short-range radio applications for ground penetrating radar applications; "Ground Probing Radar (GPR)"
- Vfg 41/2012 Official Gazette of the Federal Network Agency ( Memento of the original from November 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. General allocation of frequencies for use by the general public for short-range motor vehicle radars in the frequency range 21.65–26.65 GHz
- Vfg 09/2012 Official Gazette of the Federal Network Agency ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. General assignment of frequencies for professional use of industrial level radar applications; "Level Probing Radar (LPR)"