The late medieval sword penny , also known at the time as a gladiator penny , is a Saxon penny from the penny period , which corresponds to the Meissen penny type . Above the lily cross in the quatrefoil is a small heraldic shield with crossed course swords , which gives the sword dollar its name.
The sword penny was minted in the Freiberg , Colditz and Leipzig mints from 1457 to 1464 according to the Electoral Saxon coinage system of 1456/57 . The Colditzer and the Leipzig Sword Groschen have the same coin designs. The Freiberg Sword Groschen only differs from the other two in the coin image by a second coat of arms next to the Kurschild with the crossed Kurschwertern.
The name of the coin "sword groschen " is also applicable to the Freiberg groschen, which also shows the bar shield ( diamond wreath shield ) of the Duchy of Saxony above the lily cross . That is that of Elector Friedrich II. The Meek of Saxony (1428–1464) together with his brother Duke Wilhelm III. the brave (1445–1482) coined sword groschen. The groschen were minted according to Friedrich's coinage system at 26 pieces per Rhenish guilder . First of all:
Contemporary names for the new sword groschen are "six and twenties", that is to say 26 pieces per florin (gold guilders) and "grossi gladiatori" (gladiator groschen).
Coined as an accessory from 1461 to 1464, the value deteriorated to 34 and finally to 42 pieces per Rhenish guilder. (The Jewish head groschen and then the Saxon Turnose groschen served as the upper currency .)
Colditzer sword egg
The sole minting of the Sword Groschen by Elector Friedrich in Colditz as well as the Colditz joint minting with his wife Margaretha , daughter of Archduke Ernst I of Austria, can be explained by the fact that Frederick did not receive any coins from his brother Duke Wilhelm III. needed to give up. That is the reason why, even with these groschen, only the simple Kurschild is stamped over the lily cross.
It was a special event in Saxon mint history when Elector Friedrich II established his own mint in Colditz for his wife and allowed her to mint there. To compensate for the promised her as born Archduchess of Austria high jointure it was the seigniorage been granted to him from the mint Colditz or proportion. Duke Wilhelm III, the brother of the elector, was opposed to the coinage in Colditz, since the large quantities of the Colditz sword groschen struck up to 1463 could only be made possible by special silver deliveries by the elector. Wilhelm rightly feared that his brother's large silver transfers to the Colditz Mint would considerably reduce half of his share in the Freiberg Mint's treasure trove. That was a great nuisance to the Duke. The state main mint in Freiberg has always been jointly owned by the Wettins . His negative attitude towards the Electress may have prompted the Elector, a year before his death with Emperor Friedrich III. to ensure that his wife receives the right to mint in Colditz at the same time in the name of his two sons until the end of her life. Emperor Friedrich III. was the brother of the Electress Margaretha.
The sword coin shown above from the Leipzig Mint is a sole coinage of the Elector Frederick the Meek. The groschen, like all sword groschen, was minted according to the pattern of the shielded groschen. (Schildgroschen or shielded groschen is a Meissen groschen, which got its name from the Landsberg stake shield , which can be seen on both sides.) The mintmaster's mark heraldic lily of the mintmaster Hans Stockart is present on both sides. In addition, there is a double ring between the back and tail of the lion as a symbol .
The obverse shows the name of the mint owner and the lily cross in quatrefoil, above which the Kurschild with crossed Kurschwerters can be seen. Next to the Kurschild is the heraldic lily, the mint master's mark.
- Transcription: F (ridericus) • D (e) I • GRACIA • T (h) VRING (ia) E • LAN (d) G (ravius)
- Translation: Friedrich by God's grace , Landgrave of Thuringia.
The reverse shows the Meissen lion with a stake shield and a double ring between the back and tail, as well as the mint master's mark, heraldic lily.
- Inscription: GROSSVS • MARCh (ionis) • MISNENSIS
- Translation: Groschen der Mark Meissen.
- Saxon coin history
- Jew's head groschen
- Horn egg
- Margaret groschen
- Helmet money
- Beard egg
- Interest penny
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338–1500 , Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1974
- Walther Haupt : Sächsische Münzkunde , Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1974
- Helmut Kahnt: The large lexicon of coins from A to Z , Regenstauf 2005
- Heinz Fengler, Gerd Gierow, Willy Unger: transpress Lexikon Numismatics , Berlin 1976
- Friedrich von Schrötter, N. Bauer, K. Regling, A. Suhle, R. Vasmer, J. Wilcke: Dictionary of Coin Studies , Berlin 1970 (reprint of the original edition from 1930)
- Numismatischer Verein zu Dresden e. V. (Ed.): Dresden Numismatic Hefte No. 1, 1996. In it: The genealogy of the Meissnian-Saxon princes.
- coinarchives: Freiberger sword dime
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338–1500 (1974), p. 149: Kurschild and Rautenkranzschild
- Helmut Kahnt: Das große Münzlexikon von A to Z (2005), p. 433
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 86
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 84 (reference 413: J. Falke) and UB. Chemnitz document no. 13./14.8.1470
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 149: Beiwähr
- coinarchives Colditzer sword dime
- Friedrich von Schrötter, ...: Dictionary of Coin Studies , reprint (1970), p. 368
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338–1500 (1974), p. 83: Special event of the Saxon coin history
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 83
- Heinz Fengler, ...: transpress Lexikon Numismatik (1976), p. 352
- Heinz Fengler, ...: transpress Lexikon Numismatik (1976), p. 340
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 150: Beizeichen
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 155: 916/1
- Walther Haupt: Sächsische Münzkunde (1974), p. 261
- Gerhard Krug: The Meissnisch-Saxon Groschen 1338-1500 (1974), p. 150: 916/1
- Walther Haupt: Sächsische Münzkunde (1974), p. 261