Water tank (water management)

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Water tanks (water storage tanks) are collecting tanks, especially for storing drinking water . They primarily serve to balance the water supply and water demand (volume storage) or to achieve the most uniform possible supply pressure (pressure storage). They should also cover consumption peaks.

Drinking water tanks are basically divided into: elevated tanks and deep tanks. The elevated tanks also include water towers. They are further differentiated depending on their topographical and geographical location in the supply network and their function in central containers, counter containers and flow containers.

Elevated tanks are filled either by higher-lying springs / water extraction in free gradient or by pumps that pump up the water from the lower extraction. Deep tanks are mostly in connection with on-site water extraction (wells), from which pumps convey the water into the distribution network and also into the elevated tanks. In the distribution network, flow tanks can take over the function of intermediate storage.

Because the Pumping water from aquifers , water sources , flow and standing water bodies (reservoirs) steady - especially seasonal - fluctuations, must be a balance between water supply and consumption are created so that the consumption peak can be covered. This compensation is achieved through water tanks, among other things by including pumping systems and an often widely branched water pipe system.

The functions of water tanks differ according to their location within a water supply network or their mode of operation. Water tanks on elevations determine and limit the pressure in their supply area and increase the security of supply; those in lower elevations store the required amounts of water. Within such networks there are also flow tanks that serve as intermediate storage. Water tanks are also used to store water for fire fighting.

Water tanks, the dimensions of which depend on the average consumption within their supply area, must be structurally designed in such a way that no deposits, dirt and floating layers as well as other changes in bacteriological, biological, chemical and physical aspects can occur and the water to be stored in them no disadvantageous changes due to warming or subject to cooling.

Water reservoirs were already known in ancient times. B. in Egypt (Sadd-el-Kafara), in Israel ( Solomonic pond ) and in the Roman Empire. Wells and cisterns (e.g. in castles) can be seen as forerunners of modern water storage .

Planning, construction, operation

For the planning, construction, operation, maintenance and cleaning of the drinking water storage tanks, the technical regulations of the DVGW (German Association for Gas and Water) must be applied.


  • Gerhard Merkl: drinking water tank, planning of construction, operation, protection and repair . Oldenbourg Industrieverlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-486-63064-4 .
  • Gerhard Merkl: Technology of the water supply . Oldenbourg Industrieverlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-8356-3082-6 .
  • Johann Mutschmann, Fritz Stimmelmayr: Pocket book of water supply . 13th edition. Springer Fachmedien, Wiesbaden 2002, ISBN 978-3-663-12398-9 .
  • Robert Sattler: Water transport and distribution . R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-486-26219-X .
  • Erhard Hampe: Fluid Containers, Volume 2 Buildings . Reservoir of water supply pp. 7–65, published by Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin / Munich 1982, ISBN 3-433-00877-9
  • Kittner, Starke, Wissel: Water supply , 5th edition, Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-433-01047-1

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