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system series step ≈ age ( mya )
after that after that after that younger
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzium 2.588

Zancleum 3.6

Miocene Messinium 5.333

Tortonium 7,246

Serravallium 11.62

Langhium 13.82

Burdigalium 15.97

Aquitanium 20.44

before before before older

The Zancleum is the lower chronostratigraphic stage of the Pliocene ( Neogene ) in the history of the earth . It is therefore also known as Lower Pliocene (or Lower Pliocene called). It began ( geochronologically ) around 5,333 and ended around 3.6 million years ago and thus lasted around 1.7 million years. It precedes the Messinium , the highest stage of the Miocene , and is replaced by the Piacenzium .

Naming and history

The Zancleum stage is named after the pre-Roman name of Messina ( Sicily ), Zankle. The name and stage was proposed by Giuseppe Seguenza in 1868.

Definition and GSSP

The top of the magnetic polarity chronozone C3r (around 100,000 years before the Thvera normal-polar subchronozone C3n.4n) was defined as the basis of the level. In addition, the border is close to the extinction horizon of the calcareous nannoplankton species Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus (= base of the CN10b zone) and the first appearance of the calcareous nannoplankton species Ceratolithus acutus . The upper limit was set with the basis of the magnetic polarity chronozone C2An (Gaussian chronozone) and the extinction of the planktonic foraminifera species Globorotalia margaritae and Pulleniatina primalis . The "Global Stratotype Section and Point" ( GSSP corresponds roughly to a type profile) is located near the ancient city of Herakleia Minoa ( Sicily , Italy ).


  • Felix Gradstein, Jim Ogg, Jim & Alan Smith: A Geologic timescale . Cambridge University Press 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-78673-7
  • Giuseppe Seguenza: La Formation Zancléenne, or recherches on une nouvelle formation tertiaire. Bulletin de la Societé Géologique de France, séries 2, 25: 465-485, Paris 1868 ISSN  0037-9409
  • John A. Van Couvering, Davide Castradori, Maria Bianca Cita, Frederik J. Hilgen and Domenico Rio: The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series. Episodes, 23 (3): 179-187, Beijing 2000 ISSN  0705-3797 PDF download

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