from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
system series step ≈ age ( mya )
after that after that after that younger
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzium 2.588

Zancleum 3.6

Miocene Messinium 5.333

Tortonium 7,246

Serravallium 11.62

Langhium 13.82

Burdigalium 15.97

Aquitanium 20.44

before before before older

The Piacenzium , also Piacentien, Piacentium and Piacentin, is the upper chronostratigraphic stage of the Pliocene ( Neogene ) in the history of the earth . It is therefore also equated with the Upper Pliocene (or Upper Pliocene ). It began geochronologically about 3.6 and ended about 2.588 million years ago and thus lasted about 1 million years. The piacenzium is replaced by the gelasium ; it follows the zancleum .

Naming and history

The stage got its name after the city of Piacenza ( Italy ). The stage and name were suggested by Karl Mayer-Eymar in 1858.

Definition and GSSP

The lower limit was set with the basis of the magnetic polarity chronozone C2An (Gauss chronozone) and the extinction of the planktonic foraminifera species Globorotalia margaritae and Pulleniatina primalis . The upper limit is determined by the isotope level 103, the basis of the magnetic polarity chronozone C2r (Matuyama chronozone). Above that lie the extinction horizons of the calcareous nannoplankton species Discoaster pentaradiatus and Discoaster surculus . A “Global Stratotype Section and Point” ( GSSP ; corresponds roughly to a type profile) is located at Punta Piccola ( Sicily , Italy ).

Individual evidence

  1. Murawski and Meyer, p. 161


  • Felix Gradstein, Jim Ogg, Jim & Alan Smith: A Geologic timescale. Cambridge University Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-521-78673-7
  • Karl Mayer-Eymar: Attempting a new classification of the tertiary structures of Europe . Negotiations of the Swiss Natural Research Society. (Annual meeting in Trogen, August 17–19, 1857), pp. 70–71 et 165–199, Basel table 1858.
  • Hans Murawski & Wilhelm Meyer: Geological dictionary . 10., rework. u. exp. Ed., 278 p., Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1998 ISBN 3-432-84100-0 .
  • Davide Castradori, Domenico Rio, Frederik J. Hilgen and Lucas J. Lourens: The Global Standard Stratotype section and Point (GSSP) of the Piacenzian Stage (Middle Pliocene). Episodes, 21 (2): 88-93, Beijing 1998 ISSN  0705-3797 .

Web links