Aeolian transport

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Aerial view of a relatively small sandstorm on the eastern edge of the Namib Desert , the material is only being eroded in a very limited area.

Aeolian transport (from Aiolos = Greek god of wind) is a transport mechanism in which fine-grained, clastic material ( detritus ) from the original substrate (unconsolidated clastic sediment, regolith , soil ) is blown out ( eroded ) by the wind , sometimes transported over great distances and deposited elsewhere, sometimes thousands of kilometers from the area of ​​origin. Aeolian processes occur on the Earth mostly in arid or semi-arid landscapes without a closed plant cover on. It has been the only active surface-forming process on inanimate Mars for many millions of years. A typical example of this form of transport is the sandstorm .

Depending on the grain size , very fine-grained material ( silt and clay particles ) can be transported as suspended cargo through suspension in the air or, with coarser grain ( sand ), through saltation (jumping movement).

Landforms that were created by Aeolian transport are z. B. dunes and stable loess walls and loess blankets ("Fluglöss"). Aeolian transport, unlike other transport mechanisms, can also move material against gravity .

Transcontinental dust transport can account for enormous amounts of dust from the Sahara , for example , which is carried off the trade wind into the Amazon region. Similar long-distance transport has been proven , for example, from the Gobi Desert to Hawaii or during the drought in the US Midwest in the 1930s to Europe.

See also

Rock dust from the Sahara can be blown by the Scirocco as far as Central Europe ( Kufstein / Austria).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Robert Guderian: Handbook of environmental changes and ecotoxicology , Volume 1B ( atmosphere aerosol / multiphase chemistry, dispersion and deposition of trace substances, effects on radiation and climate) , Springer-Verlag, Berlin a. a. 2013. ISBN 9783642570964 . P. 14 f ( limited preview in Google Book search).