Oil pump

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oil pumps are pumps that move or convey oil in some form through a pipe system. Depending on the technical application, these are completely different types of pumps. In chemical laboratories, however , the term oil pump is used for a rotary vane pump that works with lubricating oil and is used to generate rough vacuums .


Oils are also lubricants that can be fed with an oil pump. Dosing pumps or pressure pumps ( piston pumps or gear pumps ) are suitable , the latter for the operation of hydrodynamic plain bearings , which are located in internal combustion engines , for example .

In the oil circuit of an engine lubrication system , the pump is first followed by an oil filter , which holds back the solid combustion residues generated by the engine and metal particles produced by wear . The engine oil is then distributed to the individual lubrication points, such as slide bearings and the crankshaft , and then collected again in the oil pan , from which it is pumped out again.

In combustion engines, there are often hydraulic valve lifters for the valve train that are also actuated via the engine oil. The oil pump can also be a hydraulic pump (see below) at the same time. Oil pumps in engines are mostly designed as gear pumps .


Main article hydraulic pump

If mechanical work is to be carried out with oil or if oil is used for power transmission in the sense of hydraulics , the necessary pressure must be applied with a pump . In some cases this is also called an oil pump.

Oil pumps are used and also referred to as such, for example in diesel locomotives . They are used to drive fans for engine cooling . The fans have oil motors that are connected to the oil pump via a line system. It is driven by the main diesel engine of the locomotive and hydraulically sets the fans in motion. Such drives are called hydrostatic .

Hydraulics are also used in many diesel locomotives and railcars to transmit power in the drive train. For this purpose, the turbine and pump are housed in a common housing, the power transmission then takes place hydrodynamically via the inertia forces of the medium set in rotation.

Oil production

Main article deep pump

If the oil in a deposit has little pressure, it has to be brought to the surface with oil pumps. These are also known as deep pumps or horse head pumps. They are used, for example, in oil production in Germany .

Web links

Commons : Oil Pumps  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Oil pump  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


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  1. Gas ballast opening of an oil pump