Basophil granulocyte

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Basophil granulocyte

Basophil granulocytes are a population of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the blood . They have intracellular granules that contain histamine , serotonin and heparin , among other things . In the differential blood count, they make up a small proportion of 0–1%. Growth factors for the basophils include interleukin -3, interleukin 5 and GM-CSF . There is evidence of mutual control in maturation between basophils and eosinophils . For example, TGF- beta (a transforming growth factor) in the presence of interleukin-3 suppresses the differentiation of eosinophils and promotes that of basophils. They have a receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is why it is believed that they play a role in the host's immune defense against parasites.

When their receptors are cross- linked by allergens bound to IgE , the basophils degranulate and release mediators such as histamine. In addition, after activation, numerous mediators such as PAF (causes platelet aggregation ), prostaglandin D2 , leukotrienes (LTC 4 , LTD 4 , LTE 4 ) are newly produced and released in large quantities. Basophils also contain a lot of interleukin-4 , which promotes the development of Th2 cells , which in turn stimulate eosinophils and B cells .

The activation of immune cells that have receptors for IgE can lead to immediate allergic reactions such as B. cause hay fever . Systemic activation of these cells (i.e. activation throughout the body) can lead to anaphylactic shock .

An increase in basophilic granulocytes ( basophilia ) in the blood can occur in myelo- proliferative diseases, especially chronic myeloid leukemia .

Individual evidence

  1. a b Michael U. Martin: Immunology . UTB, 2009, ISBN 978-3-8252-3174-3 , p. 24.
  2. ^ Klaus Dörner: Clinical chemistry and hematology. 7th completely revised edition. Thieme, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-13-129717-4 , p. 285.
  3. ^ Walter Siegenthaler: Clinical Pathophysiology . Georg Thieme Verlag, 2006, ISBN 978-3-13-449609-3 , p. 458.