|formerly in Anatolia|
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Lydian was in ancient times in Asia Minor landscape Lydia spoken. It is counted among the Anatolian languages , which in turn are a subgroup of the Indo-European languages . Lydian has a special position within the Anatolian languages and is less closely related to the other known languages than they are to themselves. It shows clear differences to the Lycian and Carian, which are closely related to Luwian . There seem to be stronger correspondences with Hittite and with (so far poorly researched) Palaic , which was spoken in northern Anatolia.
The Lydian language is very sparse. It is represented by inscriptions on coins and around 100 inscriptions and graffiti from the late 7th to 4th centuries BC. Documented. The earliest Lydian inscription was found in Egypt.
An alphabet script was used to write Lydian , which is very similar to an East Greek alphabet . In contrast to this, it contains some special additional symbols for special Lydian sounds. It is mostly left-handed (i.e. it can be read from right to left), but there are also clockwise inscriptions. So far only one bus trophy is known, in which each line can be read in a different direction. The font is contained in Unicode in the Lydian block and is therefore standardized for use on computer systems.
- Gerhard Deeters : Lydia. Language and writing . In: RE . Volume XIII, 2, 1927, pp. 2154 ff .
- Roberto Gusmani: Lydian Dictionary. With grammatical sketch and collection of inscriptions (= Indo-European Library . 2. Dictionaries ). Main band. Winter, Heidelberg 1964.
- Roberto Gusmani: Lydian Dictionary. With grammatical sketch and collection of inscriptions (= Indo-European Library . 2. Dictionaries ). Supplementary volume 1980–86 [3 deliveries]. Winter, Heidelberg 1986, ISBN 3-533-02929-8 .
- Alfred Heubeck : Lydian . In: Johannes Friedrich (Ed.): Handbuch der Orientalistik , Department 1: The Near and Middle East . tape 2 , section 2. Brill, Leiden 1969, p. 397-427 .
- H. Craig Melchert: Anatolian Historical Phonology (= Leiden Studies in Indo-European . Volume 3 ). Rodopi, Amsterdam / Atlanta 1994, ISBN 90-5183-697-X , Chapter 13: Lydian Phonology , pp. 329-383 .
- H. Craig Melchert: Lydian . In: Roger D. Woodard (Ed.): The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004, pp. 601-608 (English).
- Maciej Popko : Peoples and Languages of Old Anatolia. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008, pp. 109–117.
- Виталий Викторович Шеворошкин [Vitalij Viktorovič Ševoroškin]: Лидийский язык [Lidijskij jazyk] (= Языки народов Азии и Африки) Jazovi nariki  . Nauka, Moscow 1967 (Russian).
- Ivo Hajnal : Lydian: Late Hittite or Neo-Luwian? (2001) at Academia.edu
- Digital etymological-philological Dictionary of the Ancient Anatolian Corpus Languages (eDiAna) . Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich . Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- Lydian Corpus by H. Craig Melchert (PDF)
- TITUS: Corpus of Lydian Inscriptions
- Maciej Popko : Peoples and Languages of Old Anatolia. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008, p. 112
- Michael Everson : Proposal to encode the Lycian and Lydian scripts in the SMP of the UCS. (PDF; 475 kB) ISO / IEC JTC1 / SC2 / WG2, February 5, 2006, accessed on March 10, 2013 (English).