Cast stone

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Sculpture made of artificial stone at Milan Central Station

Concrete stone according to DIN 18333 is a prefabricated product consisting of reinforced or unreinforced concrete , the visible surfaces of which are machined as stone or specially designed as precast concrete , for example by washing out the cement particles, sandblasting , flame blasting , splitting, embossing, spikes, sticking, scratching, acidifying , Washing out and sanding. The surface treatments mentioned here are produced with the technology for the treatment of natural stone surfaces .

Ground artificial stone is now often referred to with the term terrazzo , although strictly speaking this only refers to the floor covering that is cast and processed on site and does not consist of prefabricated parts.


Roughly sanded concrete slab
Red concrete facade

A special design results from the hardening of the workpiece in appropriately designed formwork or forms. Concrete stone is not bound to an additional surface treatment. Concrete stone can be made of core concrete and facing concrete in one or more layers. It is produced using cement according to DIN 1164 and aggregates. The individual products include floor and stair coverings ( see also concrete slab ), facade elements, balustrades , fences or fences and special components such as tombstones or sculptures . The slab-like floor and wall coverings made of reinforced or unreinforced concrete can be used both indoors and outdoors. Similar to natural stone, an absolutely homogeneous structure is not possible. There are always fluctuations in the distribution of the aggregates. B. can lead to differences in brightness within a plate. The color is also decisive. Particularly light and dark artificial stones are less noticeable than z. B. medium gray. After a while, a more homogeneous look can be achieved through careful cleaning.


The visible surfaces of floor panels are usually sanded, but unsanded panels are also available. The mixture of cement , aggregates and water is very adaptable and can take on different shapes and strengths. By adding different aggregates and color pigments during production, concrete blocks are available in a wide range of variants, shapes and colors. Therefore, the choice of patterns and colors is very large. The most varied of surface treatments give concrete blocks their own character. Panels with an integrated thermal insulation layer are also available in stores.

Special forms

Concrete floors can also be poured onto existing floors and reinforced with steel bars, which increases strength. However, it takes about 28 days to harden. After it has completely dried out, the surface can be cared for using a wide variety of methods, such as a terrazzo .


Especially for allergy sufferers, this smooth floor, as well as natural stone and ceramics, has decisive advantages, since both dust with adhering allergens and pollutants can be easily removed by wet wiping without great turbulence. However, care products can also have an allergenic effect. Concrete stone floors can have an antistatic effect through appropriate aggregates (soot particles) and can therefore be used in hospitals (operating theaters). The disadvantage is that disinfection with agents based on phosphoric acid can no longer be carried out. Organic stains (blood, wound water) can usually be removed with enzyme cleaners; on the other hand, iodine-containing contamination i. d. Usually only remove mechanically by grinding.

Care and cleaning

The maintenance and cleaning of the cast stone slabs can be carried out exactly as described in the article Terrazzo (see Terrazzo # post-war period to today ). It should be noted that there are several approaches to "modern" maintenance in private areas, which differ depending on the substructure. In general, artificial stone should be completely dried out before further treatment in order to avoid secondary damage and the so-called “tiger skin look”. In commercial properties, incorrect maintenance measures can lead to a drastic deterioration in the anti-slip properties.

Wall covering

As a great advantage when cladding walls, the artificial stone has a significantly lower weight compared to the natural stone . In practice, therefore, if the use of natural stone is planned, the structure of the wall must be reinforced to allow sufficient load-bearing capacity. The dimensioning is therefore much more difficult for the civil engineer responsible . Concrete stone proves to be much easier to process and can be produced according to the specifications, while natural stone masonry requires significantly more effort.

Building walls from individual stones

The usual practice is that individual concrete blocks were produced in casting molds (see concrete slab ). A concrete mass is poured into the mold and colored by adding a dye. At the place of use, the stones are attached to the wall with a concrete mass. This procedure is very complex and requires an expert to implement it correctly .

Building walls as panels

Module system scheme for building a wall system with prefabricated panels

In recent years, the trend has been towards building wall cladding from panels . One panel is lined up next to the other and these then result in a uniform wall structure. The big advantage is the time saved and the fact that a person who does not have expert knowledge of stone construction can assemble them. Usually the panel is first screwed to the wall and then the gap between the panels is filled with special grout .

Norms and standards

  • DIN 18500 - artificial stone; Terms, requirements, testing, monitoring
  • DIN 18333 - Concrete stone work

See also


  • Atlas Portland Cement Company (Ed.): Concrete Country Residences. Photographs and Floor Plans of Turn-of-the-Century Homes , New York USA 1908, reprint, Dover Publications, Mineola NY USA 2003, ISBN 0-486-42733-1
  • PK Balatjew: Concrete, tile and terrazzo work , Fachbuchverlag Leipzig, Leipzig 1954.
  • Professional association for concrete products and related industries for the state of Hessen eV Ed .: Betonwerkstein , Wiesbaden 1955.
  • Friends of the Federal College for Concrete Workers at the Ferdinand-von-Steinbeis-Schule eV Ed .: Meisterklasse.Betonwerkstein.Info , Ulm 2008.
  • AD Hellmuth Friesen: Concrete stone as a material and construction element in modern building work , Erasmus print Max Krause Ed., Mainz 1956.
  • Sarah Gaventa: Concrete Design , Mitchell Beazley, London UK 2006, ISBN 1-84533-183-4 .
  • Hans Issel: artificial stone u. Mortar industry. Your latest products by machine production on floor and wall panels, bricks, hollow blocks, steps, roof tiles, pipes and posts. The mortar mix ratios as well as the type of regenerative aggregates; in addition, the mortar calculation according to mass and cost expenditure. , Published by Bernhard Friedrich Voigt, Leipzig 1922.
  • Sigmund Lehner: The artificial stones. A description of the representation of artificial stone masses, the raw materials, devices and machines. , A. Hartleben's publishing house, Vienna and Leipzig 1927.
  • Art Museum Düsseldorf in the courtyard of honor / Readymix AG for investments (ed.): Visions in concrete. Concrete sculpture in the 20th century , Düsseldorf 1995.
  • Karl Müller: Artificial stone construction, silent teacher for the entire artificial stone industry . Gommern 1905. New edition, Reprint-Verlag-Leipzig, Holzminden 2003, ISBN 3-8262-1314-9 .
  • Petry: artificial stone and artistic treatment of the concrete. Development from the first beginnings of the German artificial stone industry to the processing of concrete as cast stone , Deutscher Beton Verein eV Hrsg., Wiesbaden 1913
  • Erich Probst: Handbuch der Betonsteinindustrie , Carl Marhold Verlagbuchhandlung, Halle / Saale 1951.
  • Tina Skinner, The concrete network: Decorating with Concrete Indoors: fireplaces, floors, countertops , Schiffer Publishing Ltd. & Design, Atglen PA USA 2005, ISBN 0-7643-2200-1 .
  • ad-media GmbH, ZDB (Ed.): Concrete stone calendar 2013 - tender, calculation, rules, execution, Cologne 2012, 7th year, ISBN 978-3-9809793-9-9
  • The Complete Technology Book on Bricks, Cement and Asbestos - by NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers, ISBN 978-81-904398-6-2 .

Web links

Commons : Concrete blocks  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Betonstein  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Jim Morrison: Stone Veneer Siding Looks Great, But Bad Installations Cost Unlucky Homeowners Thousands. Retrieved April 6, 2019 .