The bulería is one of the most popular and versatile palos of flamenco. Their mood is mostly exuberant; their rhythm is extremely rapid. Thus, it is the ideal music and dance accompaniment to happy parties. However, a number of singers, including Fernando Terremoto , Antonio Mairena and Fernanda de Utrera , interpreted it with deep seriousness, echoing the Soleá and the Seguiriya . This relationship to the serious chants of the Cante jondo is particularly evident in the Bulerías por Soleá , a popular hybrid of these two palos. The Soleá is probably the historical origin of the Bulerías.
In addition, there is an abundance of variants that are sung and danced on specific occasions or assigned to specific professional groups or locations: Bulerías arrieras , del molinero , de la molinera , con fandango , al golpe , navideñas , de la Alameda , del Albaicín , de Arcos , de Cádiz , de Córdoba , del Estrecho , de Granada , de Huelva , de Jerez , de Málaga , de Sevilla , de Utrera .
The first bulerías were probably danced and sung around 1870. One of the earliest performers, the singer Loco Mateo, used to finish his Soleares lectures with Bulerías. The earliest written mention can be found in a verse by the poet JM Honor from 1881.
The origin of the name is controversial. A widely accepted assumption is that it derives from the Spanish word burla (mockery, teasing). Margarita Torrione offers another explanation: The name is derived from bul , the kale word for butt . It refers to the lascivious hip movements with which the dancers interpreted this dance.
The basic rhythm of the Bulería corresponds to the twelve- beat Compás of the Soleá with its peculiar emphasis on the beats:
|Blows||1 - 2 - 3||4 - 5 - 6||7 - 8||9 - 10||11 - 12|
|Counting method||u-no dos y tres||cua-tro cincoy seis||she-tey ocho||nue-vey diez||un- dos|
However, the pace is around twice as high as with the Soleá. This makes it extremely difficult for the inexperienced to follow the rhythm.
The variety of the above-mentioned variants also entails a large number of rhythmic deviations. In addition to the twelve rhythm mentioned above, different 3/8, 6/8 and 3/4 patterns are used; It is not uncommon for meter changes within a piece.
The tonality of the Bulerías is also extremely varied. In addition to the Flamenco-typical Phrygian mode with the Andalusian cadenza , versions in major are also common; this is especially true for Bulerías from Cádiz. Verses that are sung in minor can also be interpreted as buleria.
A common stanza form of Bulería is the tercerilla , which consists of three eight-syllable verses. Any other verse forms are also used.
References and comments
- Faustino Nuñez: Bulerías. In: Flamencopolis.com. 2011, Retrieved March 15, 2016 (Spanish).
- Ángel Álvarez Caballero: El cante flamenco . Alianza Editorial, Madrid 2004, ISBN 978-84-206-4325-0 , p. 112 .
- Ángel Álvarez Caballero: El cante flamenco . S. 109-110 .
- Bulerías the load driver
- the miller, the miller's wife
- on stroke
- Estrecho = strait ; the Strait of Gibraltar is meant
- Ángel Álvarez Caballero: El cante flamenco . S. 109 .
- Ángel Álvarez Caballero: El cante flamenco . S. 110 .
- Ángel Álvarez Caballero: El cante flamenco . S. 111 .
- Bernard Leblon: Flamenco . Palmyra, Heidelberg 2001, ISBN 3-930378-36-1 , p. 112 (With a foreword by Paco de Lucía ).
- Miguel Ortíz: Bulería. In: Flamencoviejo.com. March 16, 2010, accessed March 15, 2016 (Spanish).
- Bulerias. In: Flamenco.de. Retrieved March 15, 2016 .