|Area||Earthworks and foundations|
|title||Subsoil and groundwater|
|Brief description:||Naming and describing soil and rock|
|Latest edition||September 1987 (withdrawn)|
|ISO||EN ISO 14688|
The DIN standard DIN 4022 of the German Institute for Standardization e. V. regulated the naming and description of soil and rock valid for Germany . In terms of content, it was divided into three parts. The first part dealt with the creation of a layer index for boreholes without continuous extraction of cored samples in the soil and in the rock. In the second part the list of layers for drilling in rock ( solid rock ) was dealt with. Part three contained information on the list of layers for boreholes with continuous extraction of cored samples in the ground ( loose rock ).
In August 2002, DIN 4022 was replaced by the standards EN ISO 14688 , EN ISO 14689-1 and EN ISO 22475-1 . DIN 4022 officially lost its validity in January 2007. In the new version, German terms were essentially replaced by equivalent English terms. EN ISO 14688 has two parts, the content of which is closely based on DIN 4022. However, EN ISO 14688 deals with the naming of soil, while EN ISO 14689-1 deals with Fels for soil investigations (not for contaminated site investigations, see Soil Science Mapping Instructions ). Sampling procedures and groundwater measurements are dealt with in EN ISO 22475-1.
The following classification is made by the standard:
|Area||designation||Abbreviation||Grain size [mm]|
|Sieve grain||blocks||Y||over 200|
|Sieve grain||Stones||X||over 63 to 200|
|Sieve grain||Gravel grain||G||over 2 to 63|
|Sieve grain||Coarse gravel||gG||over 20 to 63|
|Sieve grain||Medium gravel||mG||over 6.3 to 20|
|Sieve grain||Fine gravel||fG||over 2.0 to 6.3|
|Sieve grain||Grain of sand||S.||above 0.06 to 2.0|
|Sieve grain||Coarse sand||gS||over 0.6 to 2.0|
|Sieve grain||Medium sand||mS||over 0.2 to 0.6|
|Sieve grain||Fine sand||fS||over 0.06 to 0.2|
|Slurry grain||Silt grain||U||above 0.002 to 0.06|
|Slurry grain||Coarse silt||PDO||above 0.02 to 0.06|
|Slurry grain||Medium silt||mU||above 0.006 to 0.02|
|Slurry grain||Fine silt||fU||above 0.002 to 0.006|
|Slurry grain||Clay grain||T||below 0.002|
With the introduction of EN ISO 14688, the terms for denoting the grain shape have been redefined. In fine-grained soils, the grain shape depends on the type of mineral ; in coarse-grained soils, it depends on the type of rock and the history of transport and weathering. Long transport routes are increasingly rounding off the grains, and severe weathering causes a high degree of grain roughness. The grain shape is evaluated according to the aspects rounding , shape and surface structure . The following table (designations of the grain shape) can be used for gravel or coarser soils.
- DIN 1054 - subsoil security
- DIN 4023 - Graphic representation of the results of drilling
- DIN 18196 - soil classification for civil engineering purposes
- Hans-Henning Schmidt: Basics of geotechnics. 3rd, completely revised, expanded and updated edition. Teubner, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-519-25019-5 .
- Dietrich Stein: Trenchless line construction. Ernst & Sohn-Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-433-01778-6 , p. 139.