DIN 4022

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Logo of the German Institute for Standardization DIN 4022
Area Earthworks and foundations
title Subsoil and groundwater
Brief description: Naming and describing soil and rock
Latest edition September 1987 (withdrawn)
ISO EN ISO 14688

The DIN standard DIN 4022 of the German Institute for Standardization e. V. regulated the naming and description of soil and rock valid for Germany . In terms of content, it was divided into three parts. The first part dealt with the creation of a layer index for boreholes without continuous extraction of cored samples in the soil and in the rock. In the second part the list of layers for drilling in rock ( solid rock ) was dealt with. Part three contained information on the list of layers for boreholes with continuous extraction of cored samples in the ground ( loose rock ).

In August 2002, DIN 4022 was replaced by the standards EN ISO 14688 , EN ISO 14689-1 and EN ISO 22475-1 . DIN 4022 officially lost its validity in January 2007. In the new version, German terms were essentially replaced by equivalent English terms. EN ISO 14688 has two parts, the content of which is closely based on DIN 4022. However, EN ISO 14688 deals with the naming of soil, while EN ISO 14689-1 deals with Fels for soil investigations (not for contaminated site investigations, see Soil Science Mapping Instructions ). Sampling procedures and groundwater measurements are dealt with in EN ISO 22475-1.


Grain division

The standard divides soils according to grain size ranges and grain proportions as well as consistency limits and organogenic proportions .

The following classification is made by the standard:

Grain distribution line for soils selected as examples
Area designation Abbreviation Grain size [mm]
Sieve grain blocks Y over 200
Sieve grain Stones X over 63 to 200
Sieve grain Gravel grain G over 2 to 63
Sieve grain Coarse gravel gG over 20 to 63
Sieve grain Medium gravel mG over 6.3 to 20
Sieve grain Fine gravel fG over 2.0 to 6.3
Sieve grain Grain of sand S. above 0.06 to 2.0
Sieve grain Coarse sand gS over 0.6 to 2.0
Sieve grain Medium sand mS over 0.2 to 0.6
Sieve grain Fine sand fS over 0.06 to 0.2
Slurry grain Silt grain U above 0.002 to 0.06
Slurry grain Coarse silt PDO above 0.02 to 0.06
Slurry grain Medium silt mU above 0.006 to 0.02
Slurry grain Fine silt fU above 0.002 to 0.006
Slurry grain Clay grain T below 0.002

Grain shape

With the introduction of EN ISO 14688, the terms for denoting the grain shape have been redefined. In fine-grained soils, the grain shape depends on the type of mineral ; in coarse-grained soils, it depends on the type of rock and the history of transport and weathering. Long transport routes are increasingly rounding off the grains, and severe weathering causes a high degree of grain roughness. The grain shape is evaluated according to the aspects rounding , shape and surface structure . The following table (designations of the grain shape) can be used for gravel or coarser soils.

aspect Expression
Rounding sharp-edged edged
well rounded
shape cubic
flat (plate-like)
elongated (stalky)
Surface structure rough

See also

  • DIN 1054 - subsoil security
  • DIN 4023 - Graphic representation of the results of drilling
  • DIN 18196 - soil classification for civil engineering purposes


  • Hans-Henning Schmidt: Basics of geotechnics. 3rd, completely revised, expanded and updated edition. Teubner, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-519-25019-5 .

Individual evidence

  1. Dietrich Stein: Trenchless line construction. Ernst & Sohn-Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-433-01778-6 , p. 139.