German horizontal

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The German horizontal plane (also Frankfurter Horizontale , Frankfurter horizontal plane or ear-eye plane OAE) is an imaginary plane in the anatomy of the human skull , which is defined by the lowest point of the lower edge of the eye socket and by the highest point of the outer bony ear canal (porus acousticus externus, porion). It was defined for craniometry by anthropologists at a congress in Frankfurt am Main in 1882 . Today it still serves as an adjustment level for X-rays and computed tomography of the head, as well as a reference level in dentistry .

Frankfurt horizontal

The orbitomeatal line is also used as a reference line in anatomy, an imaginary line through the center of the external auditory canal and the outer corner of the eye.

Other cranial reference planes in dentistry are the Camper plane through the upper edge of the porus acousticus externus and the nasospinale ( spina nasalis anterior ) and the hinge axis -orbitale plane .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Lehmann, Klaus M., Elmar Hellwig: Zahnärztliche Propädeutik . 10th edition. Urban & Fischer at Elsevier, 2005, ISBN 3-437-05391-4 , p. 49 .
  2. Peter Camper: About the natural difference in facial features in people of different areas and ages: about the beauty of ancient statues and cut stones; as well as depicting a new way of drawing all kinds of human heads. Adrian Gilles Camper [ed.]. Samuel Thomas Sömmering [translator]. - Berlin: Voss, 1792