The ejido ([ ɛxˈiðo ], Spanish, from Latin exitum ) is a form of possession that is characterized by common property and individual use. Around 1492, towards the end of the Reconquista , Isabella and Ferdinand had other parts of the Iberian Peninsula occupied. The name of the city of El Ejido in Andalusia indicates that the term for this form of fiefdom originated in Spain. In Spain, the origins of the latifundia in what is now Andalusia and Extremadura formed extensive areas, which the Spanish crown then gave as fiefs .
In the Spanish colonies in Latin America, the legal and contractual relationships between the Spanish crown, corregidor (governor) and indigenous people (indigenous population) were regulated by the legal form of ejido . In the early 20th century, ejido was mistakenly considered the traditional Indian form of land ownership, especially in Mexico . In the Mexican constitution of 1857 it was replaced by large private estates , the Mexican Revolution had demanded its reintroduction and the constitution of 1917 promised this. It was only realized in 1934 through the land reform during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas . In 1960, 24% of Mexico's built-up land was ejidos.
As a result of the negotiations on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari in 1991, farmers' right to an ejido was removed from the constitution (Article 27), this being due to the “low productivity” of the land under communal ownership has been. The ejido lands became the private property of their last owners, who are also entitled to sell them.
- Ronald H. Schmidt, William C. Gruben: Ejido reform and the NAFTA (= FRBSF Weekly Letter. No. 92-34, digital copy, (PDF; 236.9 kB) ). ). Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, San Francisco CA 1992, (