Leadership technology

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Management techniques are diverse instruments and methods for personnel management , which are to be interpreted as management competence or management principles. Essentially, this is understood to mean the management-by principles. This results in the following objectives:

  1. The exemption of executives for real managerial tasks and the relief of the superiors from routine work.
  2. Give the employees more independence in the execution of the work with the result of a positive increase in performance through motivation .
  3. The adaptation of business performance to changed environmental conditions.

Differentiation of terms

Using the example of cooperative leadership with its extremely high level of interaction between managers and those being led, or with its comparatively high effect on employee motivation, the following terms should be distinguished from one another:

  • The leadership style is a permanently shown, basic behavior of a manager towards the led. This general attitude is shaped by the cooperation with the employee and is thus clearly differentiated from the authoritarian style.
  • The leadership technique comprises principles or principles in the form of management-by-techniques, for example management by objectives as leadership through target agreements . The description of these techniques answers the question of “how” the leadership is implemented.
  • The management tools are a comprehensive expression of the means and procedures that can be used to influence employee behavior. They show "with what" is actually being led. A wide variety of management tools has long been documented in the literature.

In terms of content, all three terms have in common that they act as input factors on those being led in the personal management process - starting from the superior . All three influencing factors are geared towards achieving success that can be achieved together .

Requirements for cooperative leadership

The prerequisites for cooperative leadership are:

  • the adaptation of the organizational structure , e.g. B. job descriptions, decision-making systems, information systems, management techniques,
  • the management tools, e.g. B. Assessment systems, remuneration systems, personnel development measures,
  • Training programs for managers, e.g. B. Training of teamwork and communication skills in seminars and in practice.

Numerous leadership concepts have been developed in recent years, but they do not have to be mutually exclusive. They are usually under the name by management ... known. Partial models can be roughly distinguished from total models. Partial models only take into account partial aspects of leadership, while total models cover all design parameters.

Leadership techniques

The articles management process # management-by-concepts and leadership technology # leadership techniques overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Harald321 ( discussion ) 22:08, Aug 15, 2015 (CEST)

The following leadership techniques are widely recognized in the literature.

Management by objectives

In management by objectives, the operational goals are agreed in partnership between the management and employees, with the tasks and responsibilities of the individual departments being determined according to the goals to be achieved. Each department can determine the way to the goal itself, because not the way, but the achievement of the goals is controlled (total model).

The goals valid for the team or the individual employee are formulated SMART :

S - Specific - dt. Specific (precisely delimited and understandable);

M - Measurable - German measurable (target achievement can be checked);

A - Achievable - German achievable;

R - Realistic - German realistic;

T - Timed - German (clear time) terminated;

Management by Decision Rules

This principle is based on the delegation of decision-making tasks (leadership based on decision-making rules). Precise rules are laid down according to which these decisions must be made. These rules are mainly used to solve coordination problems that arise when several people are involved in the decision-making process (partial model).

Management by exception

With this principle of management by exception (management according to the exception principle), routine decisions are generally in the hands of the employees. The management staff only intervene in the event of extraordinary decisions or deviations in individual departments (partial model).

Management by delegation

Since the delegation of tasks and responsibilities actually represents the content of every form of management, management by delegation in the narrowest sense is not a separate form of management. The basic message of Management by Delegation is that not all company-relevant decisions are made by the company management. The delegation is intended to pass on responsibilities and decisions to as many employees as possible. The reasons for the delegation are, on the one hand, that the company management, given the multitude of its tasks, cannot deal with all decision-relevant issues on its own. On the other hand, passing on responsibility and decisions is intended to promote a sense of responsibility in each individual employee and thereby achieve a bond with the company and increase in motivation. Another reason is that professionals who are more knowledgeable than their actual superiors become decision makers. This should allow their existing expertise to flow into the decision. So that management by delegation can be used profitably within a company, it is necessary that the competencies of the individual decision-makers are sensibly delimited and limited.


  • The company management is relieved of routine activities and can concentrate on new management tasks
  • The delegation of decision-making authority and responsibility can have a positive effect on employee motivation
  • The delegation of decision-making powers accelerates processes and increases their quality
  • Management by delegation makes optimal use of the skills of the employees


  • If the management draws the decision-making power back to itself in a new, unknown situation and makes the decision, this can have a negative impact on the employee's initiative and sense of responsibility
  • Employees tend to suppress unpleasant information in order to avoid intervention by the higher authority

Management by Systems

In management by control, the focus is also on the delegation of tasks, but here the concept is based on business systems theory. This means that the aim is to achieve the highest possible self-regulation of the subsystems through the support of various computer-based systems (total model).

Management by Results

The principle of management by results (leadership through result orientation) is based on the principle of assigning goals, whereby a target performance (specification of goals to be achieved) is determined and compared with the actual performance (results achieved). So there is a performance control by the management. With this principle, the employees have only a few co-determination powers (partial model).

Management by Question

Technique carried out in an Anglo-American region, the success rate of which cannot be proven (guidance through questions). Questions that would be answered imply new questions. This concept is only successful if the questioner is interested in a real dialogue.

Criticism : This leadership approach is only acceptable if answers to the person being led (with the stipulation of an answer from the leader) can produce a high degree of objectivity between the leader and the person being led.


  • R. Baumgarten: Leadership styles and leadership techniques. Berlin / New York 2002
  • E. Kappler: Management by objectives. In: Concise dictionary of the organization. 4th edition. G. Schreyögg, A. v. Werder, Stuttgart 2004, Col. 772-780.
  • E. Rühli: leadership techniques . In: A. Kieser, G. Reber, R. Wunderer (eds.): Concise dictionary of leadership. 2nd Edition. Stuttgart 1995, Col. 839-846.
  • R. Wunderer: Leadership and Cooperation. 5th edition. Munich / Neuwied 2003

Individual evidence

  1. ^ E. Rühli: leadership techniques . In: A. Kieser, G. Reber, R. Wunderer (eds.): Concise dictionary of leadership. 2nd Edition. Stuttgart 1995, Col. 839 ff.
  2. R. Wunderer: Leadership and Cooperation. 5th edition. Munich / Neuwied 2003, p. 219 ff.
  3. ^ O. Neuberger: Lead and let lead. 6th edition. Stuttgart 2002, p. 43 f.
  4. J. Weibler: Personnel management. Munich 2001, p. 286.
  5. ^ HJ Drumm: Personalwirtschaft. 6th edition. Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, p. 452 ff.
  6. ^ HJ Rahn: Compact personnel management. A system-oriented approach. Munich 2008, pp. 133-138.
  7. A. Töpfer: Business Administration. Berlin / Heidelberg 2005, p. 961 ff.
  8. ^ WH Staehle: Management. 8th edition. Munich 1999, p. 545 fu 852 f.