Management process

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Management process

The management process includes the control of core processes in organizations , with a focus on the structuring of the organizational roles and their tasks. It represents a view of the business processes of a company, the others of which are those of the core processes and the supporting processes .

A core process is, for example, a production process or a marketing process . Supporting processes are, for example, accounting or human resources . Management processes are, for example, the development of visions and the strategy , the determination of goals , personnel management , quality management , project management , risk management , financial management .

Management process

A management process is a process in which managers in companies and organizations define and influence business processes. It is also referred to as a factual management process and can refer to both corporate management and sub-areas such as project management or risk management.

There is no uniform understanding in the literature about the elements of the management process.

The process of management consists of the following phases:

PDCA cycle
Goal setting
Description of concrete and measurable goals of both strategic and operational nature (short, medium, long-term) in order to achieve the operational purpose.
as a mental anticipation of future events. It should show how the goals can be achieved. These include u. a. organizing the use of personnel and resources as well as the time required.
Selection of (if available) options for action with regard to the objective.
as implementation of the planned in the operational reality. Here, for example, organization , personnel deployment and work are necessary.
which, based on the target / actual comparison, should show whether the plans have been implemented in reality.

In addition, specific information must be available for each phase . Furthermore, comprehensive communication between those involved in all phases is necessary. Since the decision as an act of will formation can be assigned to all of these phases, it does not constitute a phase of this process of its own.

According to ISO / IEC 15504 (SPICE), this process category includes management processes, processes in project management , quality management and risk management .

The basic practices of the management process include:

  1. Identify the necessary activities and tasks.
  2. Check the appropriateness of the intended course of action.
  3. Plan and procure the necessary resources and infrastructure.
  4. Ensure that the necessary work is carried out in full.
  5. Monitor the progress of the work.
  6. Check the work products of the work steps and evaluate the results.
  7. Introduce corrections in the event of discrepancies.
  8. Check the end result.

Principles, tasks and tools

The author Fredmund Malik differentiates between principles, tasks and tools of management:

  • In principle , a management process should be result-oriented, holistic and constructive. The manager has to concentrate on the essentials. Concentrating on your own strengths and creating trust among employees also lead to a more positive and honest overall picture of the process.
  • The tasks go hand in hand with the phase of the management process and are based on it. They can also be referred to as management functions, for example planning, organizing, coordinating, discussing, reporting, instructing and controlling.
  • As tools , the manager can call session report, you work design (Engl. Job design) and assignment control , personal work methodology, budget and budgeting, cost accounting , performance measurement and systematic screening.

Management-by concepts

The articles management process # management-by-concepts and leadership technology # leadership techniques overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Harald321 ( discussion ) 22:04, Aug 15, 2015 (CEST)

All management concepts / techniques are based on leadership techniques . Here the supervisor is usually the coordinator and provides information to the employee group. The group is actively involved in the decision-making process! The main management-by concepts are as follows:

Management by delegation
where tasks are delegated by the line manager to the employees who are fully responsible for them with regard to decisions and processing, e.g. B. Processing of a complete customer order by a group of employees. A German variant is the Harzburg model .
Management by objectives
Agree on goals together with the line manager and the employee. The employee independently determines the way to achieve the goals. Finally, a target / actual comparison takes place, for example an agreed realistic and exact target agreement
Management by exception
where employees decide and act independently in normal situations and routine cases. Superiors only intervene in exceptional cases and situations. For example, the following normal case is defined: Granting a discount up to a max. 20% by the employees.
Management by crisis
where management is led by consciously creating or provoking crises in the company in order to achieve better results than before.
Management by Results
in which the management is exercised through monitoring of results by subjecting the achieved results to ongoing and precise control by the management.
Management by motivation
in which the management takes place through targeted motivation of the employees, in that the subordinates are given incentives that are intended to encourage them to further improve their performance.
Management by Projects
as a form of teamwork, in which the management of certain projects is in the foreground, for example the construction of a new plant or the introduction of a more effective IT system.

Further management concepts

  • The lean management as a more effective and "lean management", on the one hand trying to reduce the costs, the hierarchical levels of the company and try to make the other hand, the business processes-bringing benefits or cost-effective.
  • The business process reengineering concept as an expression of the fundamental rethinking of all operational processes, which must be precisely defined with regard to their start, their elements and their end. In addition, there are findings from customer relationship management (CRM), which must be permanently incorporated into the company's production and business process chains in an optimizing manner.
  • The Integrated Management as quality management , as environmental management , as a value-based management , as knowledge management and as a system of occupational safety .
  • The St. Gallen management model as an integrated model for the management of companies, which comprises the entirety of all design, control and development processes that determine corporate activities. It is a networked information decision-making system.

Management failure

Management errors in the company are often caused by the use of unsuitable methods, procedures and actions (rituals) by managers, whereby the reasons for using useless or unsuitable procedures are diverse, for example:

Lack of knowledge
upper management about business processes, which can lead to wrong decisions with negative consequences.
Helplessness of managers
the agent knows no alternatives, but something has to happen .
Decision-psychological traps
lack of knowledge of or sensitivity to the susceptibility of decisions to bias, omissions, simplifications, and so on.
Rigidity in thinking and acting
as a danger of holding onto decisions that have already been made, even if the facts have clearly and visibly changed.

The application of unsuitable management methods can waste resources (labor, capital, etc.) and time as well as cause further damage (e.g. damage to image, bankruptcy).


Individual evidence

  1. Horst Steinmann, Georg Schreyögg: Management. Basics of corporate governance . 6th edition. Gabler, 2005, ISBN 3-409-63312-X .
  2. G. Jeuschede: management techniques, Wiesbaden 1989
  3. ^ WH Staehle: Management, 8th edition, Munich 1999, p. 545 f. and p. 852 f.
  4. Ronald Bogaschewsky, Roland Rollberg: Process-Oriented Management , 1998, Springer, ISBN 978-3540640530 , pp. 83 ff