Flora falsification

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Falsification of flora is a disadvantageous change in the flora of an area, referred to in the technical term as its flora , through the introduction of non-indigenous plant species, or plants that are indigenous species but belong to clans of this species of non- regional origin . Flore corruption threatens the biodiversity on the one hand by direct displacement of the area's families, on the other hand it does not increase the likelihood of their extinction, by crossing features of the particular site or regional climate -adapted taxa as subspecies, varieties or ecotypes, or from cultured or nursery clans, or of genetically modified clans or species with reduced natural fitness . This threat of genetic introgression is harder to detect, but it can actually be more threatening in the longer term.

For the animal world, with the technical term fauna , there is the analogously formed expression faunal adulteration. But this is far less common.


Falsification of flora can result from the unintentional introduction of foreign species or ecotypes. Mostly, however, it is based on their deliberate introduction and establishment, often called “application”, by humans. In the past, these were sometimes plantings of attractive species in the landscape to "beautify the country", called " anointing " by botanists . Today, much more important but are greening measures , for example to Eingrünung of buildings, the restoration of devastated areas after earthworks, construction or mining, for horticultural, agricultural or forestry use or as compensation measures of conservation to reduce or to made elsewhere interventions compensate. In order to counteract the falsification of the flora, the Federal Nature Conservation Act , manuals and guidelines require the use of indigenous (technical term: autochthonous ) origins. Falsification of the flora in greenery often occurs unintentionally because engineers and planners trust that taxa designated with a scientific species name represent uniformly reacting, evolutionary units and underestimate the differences between clans within a species. In addition, the names given by the trade are often incorrect or are used in a different sense than in the botanical specialist literature (for example, for types of grass used for greening). In particular, however, standardized procedures, such as the use of standard seed mixtures or varieties that are uniformly grown throughout Europe in tree nurseries , often contribute to the falsification of the flora.

Legal regulation

In German nature conservation law, Section 40 (non-native, alien and invasive species) in the Federal Nature Conservation Act is intended to counteract the falsification of flora. The release of plants of alien species in the wild is therefore subject to official approval . However, the cultivation of plants in agriculture and forestry is excluded from this. A transitional regulation applied up to and including March 1, 2020 for the application of woody plants and seeds outside their occurrence areas; until then this was allowed. In the sense of the law, species is any species, subspecies or subpopulation of a species or subspecies , so the term is used differently from the biological nomenclature. An alien species within the meaning of the regulation can also be a "native" species (that is, any species that is wildly distributed in Germany). It is only forbidden to spread it in the open air, which is undeveloped, non- fenced areas in accordance with the law , so house gardens, for example, are excluded.

See also


  • Use and uncontrolled spread of foreign plants - falsification of flora or ecologically harmless? NNA North German Nature Conservation Academy Reports 4 (1), 1991.

Web links

  • Falsification of flora in the lexicon of biology at www.spektrum.de, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 1999.

Individual evidence

  1. Ministry for Spatial Planning and Environment of the State of Saxony-Anhalt (ed.): Florenverfälzung in woody plantings and possible protective measures. Brochure, 20 pages. 2nd edition, Magdeburg, October 1998.
  2. C 3 Biological safety and avoidance of faunal and flora adulteration. in the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB): National strategy on biological diversity. Cabinet decision of November 7, 2007. Brochure, 4th edition, July 2015. 179 pages.
  3. What is "floral adulteration"? Page 21 in Andreas Bosshard, Philipp Mayer, Anna Mosimann: Guidelines for natural greening in Switzerland. Ö + L Ecology and Landscape GmbH, May 2013.
  4. Ulrich Walz & Frank Müller: Florenwandel in Saxon Switzerland - Geographical Information System allows comparison with historical data. Hercynia NF 42, 2009, pp. 197-215.
  5. Sabine Tischew & Anita Kirmer: Introduction. in the manual for near-natural greening of raw floors. Springer Verlag, 2006, ISBN 978-3-8351-0103-6 .
  6. Norbert Müller, Anita Kirmer: Use of autochthonous seeds and plant material in Thuringia - technical principles and recommendations for further action. Landscape management and nature conservation in Thuringia 46 (2), 2009, pp. 65–72.
  7. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU): Guide to the use of local woody plants. Brochure, January 2012. 30 pages.
  8. Peter Englmaier: The sowing of bristle-leaved fescue species (Festuca spp.): Near-natural greening or falsifying the flora. Gredleriana 9, 2009, pp. 61-82.
  9. Dorothee Ortner: On the nature conservation law obligation to use autochthonous seeds and planting material in the greening of the streets. UFZ discussion papers 10/2004. 21 pages.
  10. Walter Frenz, Tobias Hellenbroich, Birgit Seitz: Planting trees of local origins in the open landscape - legal and technical aspects of awarding practice. BfN scripts 262, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 2009. Published by the BfN Federal Agency for Nature Conservation.