Open die forging
The forging is for forging associated non-cutting metal forming , the design of the tool unbound generation is targeted workpiece movement. As a rule, it is only used for one-off production, as it is uneconomical for series production. The aim of forming is to improve the mechanical properties and manufacture the raw parts.
A distinction is made between manual and industrial open-die forging. Manual (free-form) forging is one of the oldest crafts in human history. Here the blacksmith has to change the shape of his workpiece on the anvil or z. B. Working out air hammer freely, which means empathy and above all experience.
Free forming is pressure forming with tools moving against each other . The tools (e.g. a forge saddle ) can be smooth or partially contain the shape of the workpiece . The workpiece shape is created through targeted guidance of the workpiece and by controlling the impact force ( impact energy ) of the bear . Many working strokes are necessary before the workpiece assumes its desired shape.
Workpieces from around 1 kilogram to 350 tons can be processed industrially , for example crankshafts , rollers, disks, rings or blocks.
Free forms can be divided into:
- Forming by hot forging :
- Forming by cold forging :
- Air hammer
- Forging press ( hydraulic press )
- Drop hammer
- Spring drop hammer (spring hammer)
Manual open die forging
- Hårvard Bergland: The art of forging. The great textbook of traditional technology. 4th, unchanged edition of the German edition. Wieland, Bruckmühl 2013, ISBN 978-3-9808709-4-8 .
- Hermann Hundeshagen: The blacksmith at the anvil. A practical textbook for all blacksmiths. VEB-Verlag, Berlin 1957; Reprint of the 8th, unchanged edition from 1989: Manuela Kinzel Verlag Göppingen, Dessau 2019, ISBN 978-3-95544-120-3 .
- Wolfgang Pöttinger: Shaped wrought iron. Oberösterreichischer Landesverlag, Linz 1977, ISBN 3-85214-183-4 .
Industrial open die forging
- Birgit Awiszus u. a. (Ed.): Basics of manufacturing technology. With 55 tables. 5th updated edition. Fachbuchverlag Leipzig in Carl-Hanser-Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-446-43251-2 , pp. 72–73 ff.