In the miner's language, the rock into which mines ( shafts , tunnels, etc.) are driven is referred to as mountains . In the case of deposits that are approximately horizontally ( bottom ) oriented , for example coal seams , the rock located above the deposit is also referred to as overburden or hanging wall , and that located below is referred to as lying .
Origin and use
The term comes from a time when underground mines actually existed almost exclusively in the mountains , since there the pit water penetrating the mine could be drained into the nearest valley via a water solution tunnel . At that time, conveying and pumping technology was not yet sufficiently developed to lift water, people and material from great depths. Today the term is used regardless of whether the mine is actually located in a mountain range in the geographical sense or in the subsurface of the lowlands. Last but not least, geologists had adopted numerous expressions from the miner's language since the beginning of their science in the 18th century. They often used the expression "mountains" as a synonym for "rock" or in the sense of "layer sequence" (cf. lithostratigraphy ), among other things in word combinations such as "coal mountains" or "chalk mountains".
- Walter Bischoff , Heinz Bramann, Westfälische Berggewerkschaftskasse Bochum: The small mining dictionary. 7th edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen, 1988, ISBN 3-7739-0501-7
- Ernst-Ulrich Reuther: Introduction to mining. 1st edition, Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen, 1982, ISBN 3-7739-0390-1