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In the general usage of the term, community is defined as all organizational forms of human coexistence that go beyond the family group .


The term goes back to Marcus Tullius Cicero , who defined the political community in De re publica as res publica . According to Ferdinand Tönnies (1887), community is the “name for that type of ( people ) community in which a social structure has developed on the basis of a multitude of needs, skills, knowledge, work areas, etc. that can be separated from one another traditional custom and established law, the members of the national community are assigned to certain offices and classes with given rights, duties and functions. "

Community work

The term appears widespread in the context of community work, but only generally refers to a " community or part of it".


In codified German law , community is used as a legal term by the legislature , but is not legally defined . There are four sources: § 3 Paragraph 1 AO , § 104 Sentence 2 PersVG , § 22a Paragraph 2 No. 2 SGB ​​VIII and Appendix 2 of the Naturalization Test Ordinance .

Individual evidence

  1. Homepage of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, glossary (accessed on August 25, 2014)
  2. Marcus Llanque : Political history of ideas - a fabric of political discourses . Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 2008, p. 70.
  3. a b Werner Fuchs-Heinritz u. a. (Ed.): Lexicon for Sociology , 5th edition, Springer, Wiesbaden 2011, p. 231.
  4. Appendix 2EinTestV