The hospital Neufriedenheim was a private mental hospital in today's Munich district Sendling-Westpark that existed from 1891 to 1941. During the Second World War, the building was badly damaged in an air raid in 1942 and poorly prepared to accommodate refugees. After the Second World War and until 1952, it was confiscated by the US Army. After the return, the building for the State Dust Mute Institute (today the Bavarian State School for the Deaf ) was rebuilt and the existing structure was greatly simplified. The state dust mute institute used Neufriedenheim from 1952 to 2011, and it has been empty since then.
From 1891 the core of the three-wing complex with central and side pavilions and a detached villa in a spacious garden plot far outside the city were built by the architect Max Deissböck . And expanded in the following year. By 1899, the architect Johann Hieronymus added additional tracts and outbuildings, including a villa for the director of the institution. In 1911 two change halls and a porter's house followed.
Operation and history
The mental hospital was able to accommodate around 80 patients of both sexes in open and closed wards and was aimed at patients from the upper and upper classes of the population. The original client and medical director, Karl Kraus, had to sell the clinic in 1892 due to financial difficulties. The buyer was his chief physician Ernst Rehm , who subsequently managed the clinic. When he retired from work for reasons of age, his son-in-law Leo Baumüller took over. For private reasons, the Rehm family had to sell the clinic in 1941. It was acquired by the National Socialist People's Welfare , which ceased operations because of the war and so never operated Neufriedenheim.
During the war, the building was badly damaged by bombs and initially only poorly prepared. The Office of Military Government for Germany confiscated the facility and used it until 1952. The US military government carried out further construction work. In 1952, the state dust-mute institute moved out of its badly damaged building on Goethestrasse in Neufriedenheim and initiated a general renovation by the state building authority by 1957.
The northern part of the clinic's forest property was separated as early as the late 1920s and the non-profit settlement of Friedenheim , also known as Neufriedenheim , was built on. In 1958 the southern part was also separated and the Erasmus-Grasser-Gymnasium and the Ludwigsgymnasium were built there. In 1965, a part in the east was separated, on which a new building for the Albertinum study seminar was built. At the end of the 1960s, the villa on the site had to be demolished for the construction of the Federal Highway 96 . Since then, the motorway has been running north of the former main building. In 1983, the large West Park opened east of the complex , allowing a continuous green belt from Laim to the city center.
Because of the severe war damage and the greatly simplified reconstruction, the building was removed from the list of monuments.
Since the abandonment of the buildings by the state school for the deaf at the turn of the year 2011/12, the building has been empty. On August 3, 2020, the building was damaged in a fire.
The Free State of Bavaria planned to use it again for educational purposes under the provisional project name Bildungscampus Westpark . A support association has existed since January 2014. In 2018, the city and state agreed on an exchange of land, through which the area came into the hands of the city. She plans to expand the two grammar schools for around 1000 more students in the future, a sports hall, a new secondary school and a new building for the special educational support center in Munich Mitte-3 , which is currently spread over two sites in the vicinity.
One of the most prominent patients was Duke Siegfried in Bavaria (1876–1952) who suffered permanent brain damage in 1899 after falling during a horse race and became mentally ill. He spent most of his life in the Neufriedenheim asylum.
In 1904 the neurologist and writer Oskar Panizza was admitted to Neufriedenheim as a patient for ten days, but left the facility prematurely after a dispute with the management.
- Denis A. Chevalley, Timm Weski: State Capital Munich - Southwest (= Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation [Hrsg.]: Monuments in Bavaria . Volume I.2 / 2 ). Karl M. Lipp Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-87490-584-5 .
- Fürstenrieder Strasse 155. In: Monuments in Bavaria, page 220
- Max Megele: history of architecture Atlas of the City of Munich . New series of publications of the Munich City Archives 1951, p. 91. Max Megele: Building history atlas of the state capital Munich. Volume 3: The city in the anniversary year 1958 . New series of publications by the Munich City Archives 1960, p. 47.
- Monacensia Signing History: Neufriedenheim , accessed on July 4, 2012
- Studienseminar Albertinum: History , accessed on July 4, 2012
- Munich fire brigade: Dramatic column of smoke over Munich (Sendling-Westpark). In: press portal. August 4, 2020, accessed August 4, 2020 .
- Munich: Major fire in a former school for the deaf. In: Munich evening newspaper. August 3, 2020, accessed August 4, 2020 .
- Erasmus-Grasser-Gymnasium: Förderverein Bildungscampus ( Memento of the original from September 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung: The city finally has an area for the education campus , October 14, 2018