|Belt model according to PDB 2H24|
Existing structural data : 1ilk , 1inr , 1j7v , 1lk3 , 1vlk , 1y6k , 1y6m , 1y6n , 2h24 , 2ilk
|Properties of human protein|
|Mass / length primary structure||160 amino acids|
|Secondary to quaternary structure||Homodimer|
|Gene names||IL10 ; CSIF; IL-10; IL10A; MGC126450; MGC126451; TGIF|
|Parent taxon||Tissue animals , some viruses|
|Gene locus||Chr 1: 206.77 - 206.77 Mb||Chr 1: 131.02 - 131.02 Mb|
Interleukin-10 (or IL10 for short , or outdated: Cytokine-synthesis inhibitory factor or CSIF for short ) belongs to the interleukins within the cytokines (messenger substances of the immune system) . It is mainly secreted by monocytes and also by TH2 lymphocytes . It has numerous functions in the regulation of the immune system. Among other things, it has a limiting and inhibiting effect on defense processes that affect z. B. can lead to septic shock and thus protects the organism from destroying itself through excessive inflammatory processes. Together with TGF-β it is one of the most important anti- inflammatory cytokines and is important for the development of immune tolerance . It inhibits the formation of cytokines of the Th1 response and has a prolonged effect on the survival, reproduction and antibody production of B lymphocytes . It blocks the nuclear factor NF-κB and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway . Interleukin-10 is an essential immunomodulator in the intestinal tract. Deficiency is associated with a predisposition to inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis .
The precursor of interleukin-10 is encoded in humans on chromosome 1 gene locus q31-32. The gene product comprises 178 amino acids.
- IL-10 inhibits CD-28 signaling and the formation of tumor necrosis factor , interleukin-1 (and synergistically promotes the formation of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist), interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 in antigen-presenting cells such as e.g. B. monocytes and dendritic cells and thus indirectly the activation of T lymphocytes .
- IL-10 inhibits the activation of cyclooxygenase-2 by lipopolysaccharides in monocytes.
- It directs the T lymphocyte response more from TH1 to TH2.
- IL-10 promotes the proliferation of B lymphocytes and their differentiation into plasma cells . On the other hand, it inhibits IgE production in the presence of monocytes.
- In natural killer cells , IL-10 can inhibit interferon production in the presence of monocytes or dendritic cells, or it can increase it if isolated natural killer cells are simultaneously acted on by interleukin-12 .
- Promotes phagocytosis and inhibits antigen presentation in monocytes. Monocytes differentiate less into antigen-presenting and thus inflammation-promoting dendritic cells, but more into macrophages that eliminate the cause of inflammation. However, interleukin-10 does not inhibit already differentiated dendritic cells, as these no longer express an IL-10 receptor.
- TH Sky Ng, Graham J. Britton, et al. a .: Regulation of Adaptive Immunity; The role of interleukin-10. In: Frontiers in Immunology. 4, 2013, S., doi : 10.3389 / fimmu.2013.00129 .
- ↑ InterPro : IPR000098 Interleukin-10 (English)
- ^ Grütz, G. (2005): New insights into the molecular mechanism of Interleukin-10-mediated immunosupression. ( Memento of the original from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Journal of Leukocyte Biology , Volume 77, January 2005: 3-15.
- UniProt P22301 .
- Interleukin-10 on KEGG
- Interleukin-10. In: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man . (English).
- Interleukin-10 on Entrez Genes