Ion pump

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Active transport via sodium-potassium pump (3 Na + / 2 K + - ATPase )
Membrane-based ATPases as ion pumps.
The ATP synthase of the mitochondria makes ATP available. The activity of the other ATPases transports ions against their gradients and uses up ATP. ATPases of the “P”, “V” and “F o F 1 ” types (F type) are shown in yellow and the mediated ion transport processes are indicated. "P-type" ATPases are characterized by a phosphorylated intermediate, which is indicated by a red symbol "~ P". The three basic types are shown along with their inhibition patterns at the bottom.
(SR - sarcoplasmic reticulum ; ER - endoplasmic reticulum ; AA - amino acid (derivative))

In biochemistry and physiology, ion pumps are transmembrane transport proteins that regulate the transport of certain ions through a biological membrane .

The lipid bilayer of biological membranes is impermeable to charged molecules , including ions . The active transport via ion pumps is one of the specific mechanisms that ensure a regulated exchange of ions through the membrane or maintain the differences in concentration of ions between the two sides of the membrane. In contrast to ion channels , in principle an energetically favorable reaction is coupled with an energetically less favorable reaction.

Types of ion pumps

Basically, two types of ion pumps can be distinguished according to the energetic balance of the transport process:

  • On the other hand, the term ion pumps also refers to those transmembrane proteins with enzyme activity, which now allow ions to pass along a gradient in the electrochemical potential and thereby convert ADP to ATP and thus use the energy of the gradient. In this way, for example, in the case of ATP synthase in the mitochondria , ATP is synthesized from ADP using a proton gradient .


See also


  • Gerhard Klebe: Active substance design: Design and effect of medicinal substances (German Edition) . Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-8274-2046-6 , p. 527 .
  • Werner Müller-Esterl: Biochemistry - An introduction for physicians and natural scientists . Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8274-2003-9 , pp. 345-361 .

Individual evidence

  1. Christian Hick, Astrid Hick: Intensive Physiology Course . Elsevier, Urban & Fischer Ort = Munich, 2009, ISBN 978-3-437-41893-8 , p. 252 .