Jeffrey Alan Gray

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Jeffrey Alan Gray (born May 26, 1934 - April 30, 2004 ) was a British psychologist.

Gray finished his BA in Psychology and Philosophy in 1959. From 1959 to 1960 he was at the Institute for Psychiatry in London, and then worked for his PhD in the Faculty of Psychology, which was headed at the time by Hans Jürgen Eysenck , which he received in 1964 .

Gray is known, among other things, for his modification of Eysenck's temperament model ( Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory ). In this context, he worked on the behavior activation system (activating or inhibiting) and tried to explain the reactivity for reward and punishment (conditioning). In his Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, Gray postulated three behavioral systems with regard to the sensitivity to reward, punishment and motivation:

  • the approach system ( behavioral activation system , BAS) for approach behavior ,
  • the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) for passive avoidance behavior,
  • The fight-flight-freezing system (FFFS) for fast, active avoidance behavior.


  • Gray, JA (1964). Pavlov's Typology. Elsevier ISBN 0-08-010076-7
  • Gray, JA (1975). Elements of a Two-Process Theory of Learning. London: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-296850-6
  • Gray, JA (1979). Pavlov. Fontana Modern Masters
  • Gray, JA (1987). The neuropsychology of anxiety. OUP. ISBN 0-19-852127-8
  • Gray, JA (1987). The psychology of fear and stress (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Gerhard Roth, Nicole Strüber: How the brain makes the soul , Klett-Cotta, 2014, ISBN 978-3-608-10750-0 . P. 174
  2. Jeffrey Alan Gray, Neil McNaughton: The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Inquiry Into the Function of the Septo-hippocampal System , OUP Oxford, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-852271-3 . P. 86