Cappadocian language

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Cappadocian ( SIL : CPG ; ISO 639-2 : ine ; ISO 639-3: cpg ) is a dialect of the Greek language with strong Turkish influences, especially in the vocabulary and partly in the sentence structure, which is in the area of Cappadocia in Asia Minor was spoken.

During the forced relocation in the 1920s, all speakers of the Cappadocian language were forced to immigrate to Greece , where they quickly switched to standard Greek . The language has been considered extinct since the 1960s, but native speakers were found in Greece in 2005 (by Mark Janse , then at the Roosevelt Academy , together with Dimitris Papazachariou from the University of Patras ). Further studies are being carried out at the University of Patras and the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki .


The Greek element in Cappadocian is largely a Byzantine, e.g. B. θír or tír 'door' from (ancient and) Byzantine Greek θύρα (standard language πόρτα or learned θύρα), píka or épka 'I did' from Byzantine Greek έποικα (standard language έκανα). Other, vorbyzantinische, Archaismen are the use of the possessive pronoun Mo (N) , SO (n) etc. εμός of ancient Greek, and the σός etc. Imperfektbildung means of -išk- suffix from ancient ionic suffix - (e) SK . Turkish influences appear on all levels. The Cappadocian sound system includes the Turkish vowels ı, ö, ü, and the Turkish consonants b, d, g, š, ž, tš, dž (some of these can also appear as palatalizations in Greek words).

The Turkish vowel harmony can be used in forms like düšündǘzu 'I think', Aor. 3.Sg düšǘntsü < düšǘntsi (Malakopi), from the Turkish verb düşünmek , patišáxıs < patišáxis 'king' (Delmeso), from the Turkish padişah . The morphology of the Cappadocian noun is characterized by the appearance of a generalized agglutinative declension and the progressive loss of gender . For example, there is a formally neutral article in to néka (dt. " That " woman), genitive néka-ju , plural nékes , genitive nékez-ju (Uluağaç). Another Turkish feature is the morphological mark of certainty in the accusative, i.e. líkos 'wolf' (nominative / unmarked indefinite accusative) vs. líko 'den Wolf' (marked specific accusative).

Although the order of words in Cappadocian is in principle determined by the subject and focus of the conversation, there is a tendency towards Turkish subject-object-verb order.

A common feature of all Greek-Cappadocian dialects is that they emerged from Byzantine Greek under the influence of Turkish. On the other hand, these dialects developed in individual, isolated villages, so that there is a wide range of Cappadocian dialects.

Individual evidence

  1. CAPPADOCIAN GREEK: an extinct language of Greece at

Web links

  • Film about the last native speakers