Karakalpak language

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Karakalpaki ( Qaraqalpaq tili )

Spoken in

Uzbekistan , Kazakhstan , Turkmenistan
speaker 583,410 (2010)
Official status
Official language in Flag of Karakalpakstan.svg Karakalpakistan (in Uzbekistan )
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


The Karakalpak language (karakalp. Qaraqalpaq tili , Qaraqalpaqsha ) is a Turkic language and belongs to the subgroup of the Kipchak (north-west Turkish) languages . This language is closely related to Kazakh and Nogai . Together they form a common subgroup within the Turkic languages.

Alternative names

Further names for the language are Karaklobuk , Çorny and Klobouki as well as Qaraqalpaq Türkçesi and Karakalpak Türkçesi (Karakalpakic Turkish) from Turkish Turkology .

Speaker and area of ​​circulation

The main distribution area is the autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan in northwest Uzbekistan . In the 1989 census , 398,573 Karakalpaks gave it as their mother tongue and 1314 as a second language. In addition, around 2000 speakers live in northern Afghanistan . (→ Comparative consideration of the Turkic languages )


All Turkic peoples in Russia , Central Asia and Siberia used Kyptschak-Tatar as a common written language until it gave way to the Eastern Turkish written form of Chagata in the 15th century .

It was not until 1924 that Karakalpakian became an independent written language, when a modified Arabic alphabet was introduced to write it. As early as 1927 this was replaced by the standardized Turkic-language alphabet . As part of the introduction of compulsory Russian lessons, the alphabet was replaced by a modified Cyrillic alphabet in 1940.

Cyrillic Karakalpak alphabet:

А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н
Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү
Ў ў Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

In 1997 a new type of Latin alphabet was adopted for Karakalpak . Like the other Latin alphabets within the Turkic languages, this is also referred to as the " new Turkish alphabet ". However, it dispenses with the usual diacritical marks in Turkish and thus largely corresponds to the Uzbek Latin alphabet.

Latin caracalpak alphabet (1994-2016):

А а B b C c D d Е е F f G g H h I i
J j K k L l М m N n О о P p Q q R r
S s Т t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z А 'а'
O 'o' I 'i' U 'u' G 'g' N 'n' Sh sh Ch ch

The last changes to the new Karakalpak alphabet were made in 2016: letters with accents were inserted in place of letters with apostrophes.

Modern Latin Karakalpak Alphabet:

А а Á á B b D d Е е F f G g Ǵ ǵ H h
I i Í ı J j K k L l М m N n Ń ń О о
Ó ó P p Q q R r S s Т t U u Ú ú V v
W w X x Y y Z z Sh sh C c Ch ch


  • Saodat Doniyorova: Parlons karakalpak . L'Harmattan, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-7475-3246-1 .
  • O. Ibragimov (arr.): Short German-Karakalpak dictionary . Publishing house Bilim, Nokis 1995.
  • Тенишев Э. Р. (отв. ред.). Тюркские языки. (Серия «Языки мира»). - Бишкек, 1997. - C. 264-272.
  • Каракалпакский язык // Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь. - М., 1990.
  • К. М. Мусаев (отв. Ред.): Орфографии тюркских литературных языков СССР. - М .: Наука, 1973.
  • Н.А. Баскаков (ред.): Каракалпакский язык. Т.II. Фонетика и морфология. - М., 1952.
  • Н.А. Баскаков (ред.). Русско-каракалпакский словарь. - М., 1967.
  • L. Johanson, É. Csató (eds.): The Turkic Languages. Routledge, London / New York 1998.
  • В. А. Плунгян: Введение в грамматическую семантику: грамматические значения и грамматические системо язрыку. - М .: РГГУ, 2011.
  • Ferhat Karabulut: Relative clause contructions in Kazakh . University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2003, 286 p.
  • Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier: Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society . Walter de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1 , Т. 3, 2622 p.
  • WK Matthews: Languages ​​of the USSR . Cambridge University Press, 2013., ISBN 978-1-107-62355-2 , 192 p.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Karakalpakisch an Ethnologue (18th edition, 2015)
  2. Sebastian Nordhoff, Harald Hammarström, Robert Forkel, Martin Haspelmath (eds.): Kara-Kalpak . Glottolog . Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 2013.
  3. Kazakh . UCLA Language Materials Project . Archived from the original on April 9, 2015. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved April 4, 2015. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / lmp.ucla.edu
  4. ^ Birgit N. Schlyter Language Policies in Present-Day Central Asia (PDF) // International Journal on Multicultural Societies. - UNESCO, 2001. - Fasc. Vol. 3, No. 2. - P. 130. - ISSN  1817-4574 .