from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Latin writing system
Font Alphabet font
languages Turkic languages
North Caucasian
Usage time 1928-1940
Used in USSR , Mongolian People's Republic and Tuvinian People's Republic
ancestry Phoenician script
 →  Greek alphabet
  →  Etruscan script
   →  Latin alphabet
    →  Latin writing system
relative Cyrillic alphabet
Coptic script
Armenian alphabet
particularities left to right
Uniform new Turkish language alphabet

Janalif ( Yañalif ) ( Tatar яңа әлифба jaꞑa əlifʙa , Bashkir яңы әлифбә jaꞑь əlifʙə , abbreviated яңалиф / jaꞑalif , literally "new alphabet" in the official Soviet press), the New Turkic Alphabet (NTA) , a project to transfer all Turkic languages in a unified Latin alphabet proposed in the late 1920s as part of the Allunions Project of Latinization . It was officially introduced in 1928 in the Turkic-speaking and autonomous republics of the USSR in place of the Arabic alphabet. In the following years, however, it also became the basis not only of the Turkic language but of all the newly introduced Latin alphabets during the Latinization in the Soviet Union . In the years 1938 to 1940, the Janalif-based Latin alphabets were replaced by Cyrillic alphabets. Janalif is currently no longer used.

The alphabet consisted of 33 characters, 9 of which were for vowels. The apostrophe was used to refer to the glottic stroke (analogous to the Arabic character Hamza ) and was sometimes considered a separate letter. Additional letters were sometimes used for foreign names. A lowercase letter of the letter B looked like the ʙ so as not to be confused with the letter , and the uppercase letter of the letter Y looked like the Cyrillic у . The letter №33 from the alphabet is not shown in Unicode , but looks like a soft sign (Ь ь) in Cyrillic. The capital letter Ə for the Schwa sound looks like the Cyrillic Э in a number of variants of the script . Latin capital letter I with bowl.svgLatin small letter I with bowl.svg


In 1926, the Turkish Congress in Baku recommended that all Turkish languages ​​be translated into the Latin alphabet. Since April 1926, the society developed Tatar Яңа татар әлифбасы Jaꞑa tatar əlifвasь , German , “The new Tatar alphabet” in Kazan ( Tatar Яңалиф Jaꞑalif ).

N with smear, included in Unicode since version 6.0 (position U + A790, U + A791). In a number of Latinized Tatar scripts, this character is now represented as Ñ .
Jaŋalif (1928–1940)
No. character Yaña imlâ
based on
arab. Letters
1 A a A a А а
2 B ʙ B b Б б
3 C c Ç ç Ч ч
4th Ç ç C c Җ җ
5 D d D d Д д
6th E e E e Е е (э)
7th Ə ə ﺋﻪ Ä Ä Ә ә
8th F f F f Ф ф
9 G g G g Г г (гь)
10 Ƣ ƣ Ğ ğ Г г (гъ)
11 H h H h Һ һ
12 I i ئی İ i И и
13 J j Y y Й й
14th K k K k К к (кь)
15th L l L l Л л
16 M m M m М м
17th N n N n Н н
18th Ꞑ ꞑ Ñ ​​ñ Ң ң
19th O o ﯰ, O o О о
20th Ɵ ɵ Ö ö Ө ө
21st P p P p П п
22nd Q q Q q К к (къ)
23 R r R r Р р
24 S s S s С с
25th Ş ş Ş ş Ш ш
26th T t T t Т т
27 U u ﯮ, U u У у
28 V v W w В в (в, у)
29 X x X x Х х
30th У y Ü ü Ү ү
31 Z z Z z З з
32 Ƶ ƶ J j Ж ж
33 Latin capital letter I with bowl.svgLatin small letter I with bowl.svg ﺋ, I ı Ы ы
(34.1) ' ء ' ъ, ь, э
(34.2) Latin small digraph I-with-bowl J.svg ئی, (Í í) ый

The transition to Cyrillic (1938–1940)

In 1939, the complete cyrillization of the national literature of the USSR began. As announced, the change from the Latin to the Cyrillic alphabet took place “at the request of the workers”.

Attempts to revive Janalif for the Tatar language (early 1990s)

In the 1990s, an attempt was made in Tatarstan to revive Janalif with the letter W to better reflect the Tatar phonetics. However, the attempts failed due to a number of technical problems, in particular due to the lack of letters in print shops and the lack of approval from Janalif. In 2000, a new version of the Latin alphabet close to the modern Turkish alphabet was adopted in Tatarstan, but it was banned from official use in 2002 by a decision of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

See also

Web links

Commons : Latin alphabet  - collection of pictures, videos, and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. MZ Zăkiev: Ti ͡ urko-tatarskoe pis ' mo: istorii ͡ a, Sostoi ͡ anie i perspektivy . Insan, Moscow 2005, ISBN 5-85840-330-1 .