# Lipót Smart

**Lipót Klug** , also Leopold Klug, (born January 23, 1854 in Gyöngyös , † late 1944 in Budapest ) was a Hungarian mathematician who dealt with geometry .

## biography

Klug came from a Jewish family and studied at the University of Budapest from 1872 to become a teacher. After graduating in 1874, he became a grammar school teacher in Bratislava . From 1893 he was a high school teacher in Budapest. He completed his habilitation in Budapest, was a private lecturer there from 1891 and became an associate professor of descriptive geometry at the University of Kolozsvár in 1897 . In 1900 he became a full professor. In 1917 he retired and moved to Budapest, where he continued his scientific work until his eyesight faded. However, he privately taught students such as the ten-year-old Edward Teller , whom he introduced to projective geometry and taught Leonhard Euler's algebra to be read. Klug donated a prize for work to promote geometry in Hungary, which he endowed with money equal to his annual pension and which László Fejes Tóth and Ferenc Zigány received in 1943 . That was the only time he was forgiven. He left his home in Budapest at the end of 1944 during World War II and did not return. The circumstances of his death are unclear; he may have been a victim of the anti-Semitic riots at the time.

Klug dealt with performing and projective geometry and was influenced by Gyula König . He wrote several textbooks on geometry, such as the book *Projective Geometry* (1903) and *Descriptive Geometry* (1900).

In 1889 he published a generalization of the Pythagorean theorem for k-dimensional simplexes.

## Fonts

- Elements of Projective Geometry (Hungarian), 1892
- Configuration of the general and four special Pascal hexagons (Hungarian), Albert K. Ajtai, Buchdruckerei, Cluj-Napoca, 1898.
- Projective Geometry (Hungarian), Budapest 1903
- Descriptive Geometry (Hungarian), Budapest, 1900.

## literature

- Róbert Oláh-Gál:
*The Most Cited Hungarian Geometer of the Geometric Institution of the Technical University of Vienna*, 2009 (Babes-Bolyai University) - Ferenc Szenkovits:
*Remarkable Hungarian mathematicians at the Cluj University*, Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Mathematica, Volume 59, 2014, pp. 419-433.

## Web links

- John J. O'Connor, Edmund F. Robertson :
*Lipót Klug.*In:*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive .*

## Individual evidence

- ↑ Brief biography of Klug in Janos Horvath (ed.), A panorama of hungarian mathematics in the twentieth century, Volume 1, Springer 2006, p. 584
- ↑ Klug, MONTHS FOR MATHEMATICS, Volume 10, 1889, pp. 84–87, quoted in Janos Horvath (Ed.), A panorama of hungarian mathematics in the twentieth century, Volume 1, Springer 2006, p. 429

personal data | |
---|---|

SURNAME | Clever, Lipót |

ALTERNATIVE NAMES | Clever, Leopold |

BRIEF DESCRIPTION | Hungarian mathematician |

DATE OF BIRTH | January 23, 1854 |

PLACE OF BIRTH | Gyöngyös |

DATE OF DEATH | 1944 |

Place of death | Budapest |