Michael Horne

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Michael A. Horne (* 1943 in Gulfport (Mississippi) ) is an American physicist, known for his work on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics .

Horne studied at the University of Mississippi and received her PhD in physics from Boston University with Abner Shimony . He taught at Stonehill College , a Catholic school in Easton, south of Boston .

With John Clauser , Abner Shimony and Richard A. Holt, he developed the CHSH inequality to test Bell's theorem (the test was then carried out experimentally in 1972 by John Clauser and Stuart Freedman ). His collaboration with Shimony on this began in late 1968, and Clauser and Holt were soon involved. In 1975 he turned to neutron interferometry in collaboration with Clifford Shull at MIT (at that time such interferometer experiments with neutrons had been developed by Sam Werner at the University of Missouri and by Helmut Rauch and Anton Zeilinger in Vienna). This led to an encounter with Daniel Greenberger , who had already theoretically proposed neutron interferometry for gravitation in the 1960s and was also interested in Shull's experiment, and later with Zeilinger (in Grenoble 1978).

In 1989, together with Daniel Greenberger and Anton Zeilinger, he introduced quantum entangled states of three subsystems (GHZ state). It was first realized experimentally in 1998 ( GHZ experiment ), and represents an improvement over experiments based on Bell's inequality . GHZ states were the first examples of quantum entanglement with more than two particles and play a fundamental role in quantum information theory .

He plays the drums in his college jazz band in his spare time.


  • with J. Clauser, Abner Shimony, Richard Holt: Proposed experiment to test local hidden variable theories. In: Physical Review Letters. Volume 23, 1969, p. 880.
  • with J. Clauser: Experimental consequences of objective local theories. In: Physical Review D. Volume 10, 1974, p. 526

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. David Wick, The Infamous Boundary: Seven Decades of Heresy in Quantum Physics, Birkhäuser 1995, p. 122
  2. Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger, Going beyond Bell's Theorem, in: M. Kafatos (Ed.), Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1989, pp. 69-72, Arxiv
  3. ^ Dik Bouwmeester, Jian-Wei Pan , Matthew Daniell, Harald Weinfurter, Anton Zeilinger: Observation of three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 82, 1999, pp. 1345-1349, Arxiv