Osmotic diuresis

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Classification according to ICD-10
R35 Polyuria
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

As osmotic diuresis , also called Filtrationsdiurese is an increased urine output due to an increased pressure in the urinary tract of the kidneys called. This effect occurs when osmotically active substances are filtered from the blood into the primary urine in the glomerula of the kidney , which are not returned to the blood in the further course of urine production in the tubules of this organ. The increased concentration gradient of the corresponding substance in comparison to the blood effects a concentration equalization via the passive outflow of water into the urine.

An osmotic diuresis can be an expression of a general disease such as diabetes mellitus , in which with a blood sugar concentration of over 180 mg / dl (kidney threshold) the re-absorption capacity of the tubule system is exceeded and a glucosuria and thus increased water excretion ( polyuria ) result. At the same time, there is also increased drinking behavior (polydipsia).

An osmotic diuresis is used medicinally in emergencies such as glaucoma , cerebral edema or acute kidney failure . It is initiated by giving osmotic diuretics such as mannitol .

Individual evidence

  1. Alphabetical directory for the ICD-10-WHO version 2019, volume 3. German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), Cologne, 2019, p. 662
  2. Joachim Frey : Changes in the amount of urine. In: Ludwig Heilmeyer (ed.): Textbook of internal medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Göttingen / Heidelberg 1955; 2nd edition, ibid. 1961, pp. 905-910.
  3. ^ Joachim Frey: Filtration diuresis as an expression of relative and absolute tubular insufficiency. In: Ludwig Heilmeyer (ed.): Textbook of internal medicine. 1961, p. 922 f.