|( Draparnaud , 1801)|
Pyramidula rupestris , also called rock pyramid snail, is a terrestrial snail species from the family of pyramid snails (Pyramidulidae). In the older literature, many older descriptions of Pyramidula rupestris actually refer to Pyramidula pusilla .
The housing is conical with straight outlines. It measures 1.4 to 2.5 mm in height and 2.5 to 2.7 mm in width, and thus varies from slightly wider than high to significantly higher than wide. The 4 to 4½ turns are arched and clearly separated from each other by a deep seam. The first turns can increase somewhat irregularly. The navel takes up about ¼ (or even slightly less) of the total diameter. The mouth is rounded, the edge of the mouth is simple, not reinforced and very fragile. The last turn forms a blunt edge on the periphery.
The fresh housing is colored dark red-brown, older housings that have already been somewhat weathered are white-gray. Often the housings are covered with crumbs of rock and remnants of lichen. The embryonic casing is only visible with a strong magnifying glass and covered with fine pustules; to the naked eye it appears almost smooth. The juvenile and adult housing, on the other hand, has more or less irregular growth stripes.
The soft body is dark gray to black in color. The antennae are moderately long, relatively thick and comparatively thick at the top.
The shell of the Pyramidula rupestris is very similar to that of the Pyramidula pusilla Gittenberger & Bank, 1996, which was only recently separated as an independent species . The species is on average somewhat larger and always significantly wider than it is tall.
Geographical distribution and habitat
The distribution area includes the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean area, including North Africa and the Middle East. In the east, the distribution area extends to Central Asia. The species is also found in the Canary Islands.
The species is said to have been found up to 3000 m above sea level. The information on distribution is only reliable to a limited extent, since a new taxon ( Pyramidula pusilla Gittenberger & Bank, 1996) was only recently separated from P. rupestris . Older information does not distinguish between the two taxa. So was z. B. only recently found that in Bulgaria it is not P. rupestris but P. pusilla ; d. H. the earlier records of P. rupestris in Bulgaria are probably all related to P. pusilla .
The rock pyramid snail is preferred to be found on warm and dry limestone rocks and limestone walls that are often exposed directly to the south.
Way of life
The animals often live in small groups on the surface of limestone rocks in cracks, small pits or under small overhangs. They are less common on north-sloping slopes or not near rocks. When it is dry, many specimens do not retreat into protected cracks or crevices, but attach themselves extremely firmly to the ground. In this way, they can easily be broken and carried away with calcareous natural stones .
The animals feed on endolithic algae and lichens. The stones are rasped off with the help of the radula and gravel and algae are picked up. The faeces therefore contain, in addition to indigestible algae and lichen residues, large amounts of calcium carbonate .
The animals are of separate sex. Reproduction takes place via ovoviviparia . The few, very large eggs are held back in the mantle cavity until the young animals hatch, which leave the mantle cavity as miniature adults. At the time of “birth” the shells of the young animals measure about 0.7 mm in diameter and have one and a half turns.
The taxon was first described in 1801 by Jacques Philippe Raymond Draparnaud as Helix rupestris . It is the type species of the genus Pyramidula Fitzinger, 1833. However, it was only recently recognized that it conceals several species. Pyramidula rupestris s was very common . st. confused with Pyramidula pusilla Gittenberger & Bank, 1996 (Gittenberger & Bank, 1996). Occasionally, the Pyramidula chorismenostoma (Westerlund & Blanc, 1879), now mostly recognized as an independent species , was considered a subspecies of Pyramidula rupestris .
Some authors distinguished two subspecies:
- Pyramidula rupestris rupestris (Draparnaud, 1801), the nominate subspecies
- Pyramidula rupestris hierosolymitana Bourguignat, 1852
Newer works do not exclude any subspecies.
- Edmund Gittenberger, Ruud A. Bank: A new start in Pyramidula (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Pyramidulidae). Basteria, 60 (1/3): 71-78, Leiden 1996 PDF .
- Michael P. Kerney, RAD Cameron & Jürgen H. Jungbluth: The land snails of Northern and Central Europe. 384 pp., Paul Parey, Hamburg & Berlin 1983 ISBN 3-490-17918-8 , p. 84 (refers to Pyramidula rupestris and other species of the genus Pyramidula ).
- Klaus Bogon: Landschnecken biology, ecology, biotope protection. 404 p., Natur Verlag, Augsburg 1990 ISBN 3-89440-002-1 , p. 98/9 (refers to Pyramidula pusilla )
- Ulrich Bößneck: The rock pyramid snail ( Pyramidula rupestris Draparnaud, 1801) in Thuringia. Publications of the Natural History Museum Erfurt, 12: 92-100, Erfurt 1993 (refers to Pyramidula pusilla ).
- Rosina Fechter and Gerhard Falkner: Molluscs. 287 p., Mosaik-Verlag, Munich 1990 (Steinbach's Nature Guide 10) ISBN 3-570-03414-3 , p. 140.
- AnimalBase - Pyramidula rupestris
- Sandra Kirchner, Josef Harl, Luise Kruckenhauser, Michael Duda, Helmut Sattmann, Elisabeth Haring: Phylogeography and systematics of Pyramidula (Pulmonata: Pyramidulidae) in the eastern Alps: still a taxonomic challenge. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 82: 110-121, 2016. doi : 10.1093 / mollus / eyv047
- Mienis, HK 1987: On the presence of Pyramidula rupestris in the Levant Levantina, 69: 723-724
- Ewald Frömming: Biology of the Central European Landgastropods. 404 S., Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1954, p. 44 (refers to Pyramidula pusilla ).
- Ivailo K. Dedov: On the status of the Bulgarian Pyramidula (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Pyramidulidae). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 59 (2): 221-224, 2007
- Jacques Philippe Raymond Draparnaud: Tableau des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. 116 S., Renaud; Bossange, Masson & Besson, Montpellier, Paris, 1801 Online at Biodiversity Heritage Library (p. 71)
- Francisco W. Welter-Schultes: European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification = identification book for European land and freshwater mollusks. A1-A3 S., 679 S., Q1-Q78 S., Göttingen, Planet Poster Ed., 2012 ISBN 3-933922-75-5 , ISBN 978-3-933922-75-5 , p. 210.
- Vollrath Wiese: The land snails of Germany. 352 pp., Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim 2014 ISBN 978-3-494-01551-4 (pp. 90/91)
- Fauna Europaea: Pyramidula rupestris (Draparnaud, 1801)
- MolluscaBase: Pyramidula rupestris (Draparnaud, 1801)
- The name rock pyramid snail is also used for the closely related species Pyramidula pusilla .