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3D drawing of a RAF-10 with a late grille

3D drawing of a RAF-10 with a late grille

Manufacturer Riga bus factory
design type minibus
Production period 1957-1959
axes 2
engine R4 petrol engine
power 52 hp (38 kW)
length 4,900 m
width 1,700 m
height 1,900 m
Wheelbase 2700 mm
Turning circle 12.8 m
Seats 10 + 1
Empty weight 1640 kg
successor RAF-977
Similar models RAF-08

The RAF-10 ( Russian РАФ-10 ), often also referred to by the nickname “Festival” (Russian Фестиваль), is the first mass- produced minibus from the Soviet Riga Bus Factory (RAF). The vehicle was produced from 1957 to 1959, the smaller RAF-08 was developed at the same time , but it remained a prototype. The RAF-10 is technically based on the GAZ-M20 Pobeda passenger car and uses its propulsion system and chassis. When production of the Pobedas was stopped in 1958, it became necessary to develop a successor for the bus. In the same year, small-scale production of the RAF-977 began , which subsequently remained the most important minibus in the Soviet Union for almost 20 years .

Vehicle history

The later Riga bus factory started operations in 1949 and began manufacturing wooden bodies for minibuses in 1953 at the latest . Based on this experience, the RAF-251 with 22 seats was built from 1955 . In the following years the development of minibuses began. The first model was the RAF-10, which used the chassis of the GAZ-M20 Pobeda passenger car, which was widely used at the time. It was presented to the public in 1957, making it the first Soviet-made minibus designed for city traffic. The developers coined the word “micro-bus” in the Russian language for the vehicle; previously only buses on truck chassis had been built.

The small size of the minibus was particularly striking. Although it was only 20 cm longer and a little wider than the Pobeda, it could still transport ten passengers and the driver. With an empty weight of 1640 kg, it was only 180 kg heavier than the passenger car. A two-part wing door behind the passenger door served as access to the passenger compartment. In the successor, it was later replaced by a one-piece door. The four-cylinder four-stroke gasoline engine with a displacement of 2.12 l was adopted unchanged from the passenger car, as was the three-speed manual transmission. To compensate for the rather low output of 52 hp, the ratio of the rear axle was changed from 5.12: 1 to 6.11: 1. However, this also reduced the top speed to 80 km / h.

The series production of the RAF-10 began in 1957, occasionally it is wrongly stated that series production never took place. Since the plant did not have an assembly line, the numbers built remained small. The plan was to produce 1,000 minibuses as early as 1958, but it is uncertain whether this number would even be reached. The look of the radiator grille changed at least once, the early models had horizontal chrome strips instead of a simple grille. Series production of the GAZ-M20 Pobeda was stopped as early as 1958, which meant that the minibus had to be redesigned. In the same year, the production of the successor, now known as the RAF-977 according to the standardized Soviet designation system for motor vehicles, began, initially in small numbers and with little change in appearance. Production of the RAF-10 ended in 1959.

In addition to the RAF-10, there were also prototypes of an eight-seater with the technology of the Moskvich-407 in 1958 , but the car, known as RAF-08 "Spriditis" , was not built in series. The similar Moskvich A9 never got beyond prototypes. Only the Uljanowski Avtomobilny Sawod produced the UAZ-450 in series from 1958 , of which there was also a minibus variant. However, the vehicle had all-wheel drive . It is not known if an RAF-10 has survived to this day.

Technical specifications

For the RAF-10 built from 1957.

  • Engine: four-cylinder in-line petrol engine
  • Engine type: "GAZ-20", from the GAZ-M20 Pobeda passenger car
  • Power: 52 HP (38 kW) at 3600 min -1
  • Displacement: 2.12 l
  • Bore: 82.0 mm
  • Stroke: 100.0 mm
  • maximum torque: 123 Nm
  • Compression: 6.2: 1
  • Mixture preparation: carburettor, type K-22E
  • Valve control: standing valves
  • Firing order: 1–2–4–3
  • Starter: ST20B, 1.7 hp
  • Alternator: G20, 225 W power
  • On-board voltage: 12 V.
  • Transmission: three-speed manual transmission with reverse gear, partly synchronized
  • Clutch: single-plate dry clutch
  • Top speed: 80 km / h
  • Fuel consumption: approx. 16 l / 100 km
  • Range: 400 km
  • Drive formula : 4 × 2

Dimensions and weights

  • Length: 4900 mm
  • Width: 1700 mm
  • Height: 1900 mm
  • Wheelbase: 2700 mm
  • Front track: 1364 mm
  • Rear track: 1362 mm
  • Turning circle: 12.8 m diameter
  • Seats: 10 + 1
  • Empty weight: 1640 kg
  • Tire size: 6.70-15 ″
  • Number of doors: 2 passenger doors + separate driver's door


  • LM Shugurov: АВТОМОБИЛИ России и СССР . Second part. Ilbi / Prostreks, Moscow 1994, ISBN 5-87483-006-5 .
  • Ministry of Automobile Transport of the RSFSR ; Vehicle Construction Institute NIIAT: Short Automobile Manual (краткий автомобильный справочник). Transport Publishing, 5th edition, Moscow 1965.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d L. M. Shugurow: АВТОМОБИЛИ России и СССР. Second part. P. 72 ff.
  2. a b Detailed history of the successor RAF-977 on the website of the Kharkov public transport company (Russian)
  3. a b c d e РАФ-10 . Article about the vehicle in the auto magazine “За рулем”, issue 11/1983. (Russian)
  4. a b Ministry of Automobile Transport of the RSFSR ; Vehicle Construction Institute NIIAT: Short Automobile Manual (краткий автомобильный справочник). P. 58 ff.
  5. a b c Микроавтобус РАФ-10 . Article about the appearance of the vehicle in the auto magazine “За рулем”, edition 7/1957. (Russian)
  6. Website of the Russian car magazine За рулем on the successor RAF-977 (Russian)

Web links

Commons : RAF-10  - collection of images, videos and audio files