Gigantism , Hypersomie or gigantism usually referred to a strong, proportioned tallness of the people , who according to ICD-10 in a constitutional (E34.4) and a gigantism pituitary gigantism (E22.0) is divided. The latter is due to an increased production of somatotropin (a growth hormone ) during the growth phase.
People in the top percentile of height are considered to be gigantic . These percentiles relate to the statistical size distribution curve of people of the same age, gender and ethnic origin. Giant growth also occurs in useful and ornamental plants and is mostly due to polyploidy .
A gigantic stature predominantly affecting the limbs is also called macromelia , a gigantic stature that is restricted to internal organs is called visceromegaly, and the only gigantic stature of the end parts of the body ( acra ) is called acromegaly .
Sultan Kösen (born December 10, 1982 in Mardin, Turkey) is considered the greatest living person after recognition by the Guinness World Records. On February 8, 2011, he was included in the Guinness Book of Records with his 251 cm body length .
In the context of syndromes
Giant stature occurs in a number of syndromes:
- Congenital contractural arachnodactyly
- Type I homocystinuria
- Microdeletion Syndrome Xp22.3 (Ichthyosis and Male Hypogonadism)
- Klinefelter Syndrome
- Progressive lipodystrophy
- McCune-Albright Syndrome
- Pasqualini syndrome (Leydig cell hypoplasia due to LHB deficiency)
- Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome
- Weaver Syndrome
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- XYY syndrome
Further syndromes can be found under tall stature syndrome .
- Fetal giant growth, see p. Macrosomia
- Eunuchoid gigantic stature , disproportionate with emphasis on the ascender
- partial gigantism as in angiectatic gigantism , a sporadic malformation syndrome ; Hemipertrophy ( hemihypertrophy ); Dolichostenomelia ; Elephantiasis congenita hereditaria ; Marfan Syndrome , Proteus Syndrome
- local gigantic growth as in macrodactyly
Giants in the showroom
Towards the end of the 16th century, the display of giants who made their unusual height a business can be proven. In Paris in 1571 a giant from Transylvania, who was admired in a rented apartment, is said to have had a lot of visitors. Some of these giants, like the 236 centimeter tall Cornelius MacGrath or James Murphy, who often performed with the Swiss giantess Marie Schubinger, came from Ireland. The appearances of the giantess Dora Helms are portrayed in a particularly grotesque manner. In 1907 she was seen in the Berlin Passage-Panoptikum as "Giant Backfisch Dora" and "Brunhilde". Georg Kiefer, who called himself "Giant from Alsace" and came from Metz, made his debut at the Paris World Exhibition in 1937. At Tivoli in Stockholm, Mozambique-born Gabriel Munjane exhibited his gigantic height of 261 centimeters in the early 1970s.
The tallest people
- See also: List of the greatest people
- The tallest person to date was the American Robert Wadlow . He died in 1940 at the age of 22 at 2.72 m and would probably have been 2.88 m.
- The tallest woman was Trijntje Keever . She died in 1633 at the age of 17 and was 2.55 m tall at the time.
- The Chinese Zeng Lin Yian was the second tallest woman with 2.48 m. She died in 1982 at the age of 17. Since Trijntje Keever's data has not been medically secured according to today's standards, she was listed in the Guinness Book of Records in 2000 as the tallest woman who has ever lived.
The greatest people still alive
- See also: List of the greatest people
- grosswuchs.de “Growth and tall stature ”, various causes of tall stature and determining the final height of children.
- WW de Herder: Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886). In: Pituitary. Volume 12, Number 3, 2009, pp. 236-244, doi: 10.1007 / s11102-008-0138-y . PMID 18683056 . PMC 2712620 (free full text). (Review). .
- The tallest living man in the Guinness Book of Records
- Bernfried Leiber (founder): The clinical syndromes. Syndromes, sequences and symptom complexes . Ed .: G. Burg, J. Kunze, D. Pongratz, PG Scheurlen, A. Schinzel, J. Spranger. 7., completely reworked. Edition. tape 2 : symptoms . Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich et al. 1990, ISBN 3-541-01727-9 .
- Microdeletion Syndrome Xp22.3. In: Orphanet (Rare Disease Database).
- Leydig cell hypoplasia due to LHB deficiency. In: Orphanet (Rare Disease Database).
- [Rudi Palla: The lexicon of the lost professions . Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-8289-4152-4 ]
- Guinness Book of Records 2000, ISBN 3-89681-003-0 , p. 122
- guinnessworldrecords.com (English)