Russo-Polish War 1632–1634
The Russo-Polish War 1632–1634 , also known as the Smolensk War , was a conflict between Poland-Lithuania and Tsarist Russia . After Russia had recovered to a certain extent from the time of turmoil , the Russian Tsar Michael I took advantage of this in Poland through the death of King Sigismund III. Wasa created a power vacuum to attempt to retake the areas that had fallen to Poland-Lithuania, primarily the Smolensk fortress , by breaking the Deulino armistice . After the Polish-Russian War of 1609–1618, Smolensk fell to the neighboring state and remained a bone of contention between Poland-Lithuania and the Russian Empire during the 15th to 17th centuries.
A well-prepared Russian army of up to 35,000 men, headed by the voivod Mikhail Schein , reached Smolensk in October 1632 and immediately began to siege the frontier fortress. Under the leadership of voivod Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski and the support of Prince Krzysztof Radziwiłł , the field hetman of Lithuania, who even managed to overcome the Russian siege ring twice and the Polish garrison, the city held out until the arrival of the relief army under King Władysław IV Wasa to provide urgently needed funds until next year. The Polish armed forces, led by the king himself, arrived near Smolensk on September 4, 1633 and immediately took steps against the besiegers.
In a series of fierce fighting, the Poles first forced the Russians to completely abandon their siege of Smolensk by October 3, and then finally encircle and besiege them by the end of the month. The besieged Russians were waiting for a relief army, which never arrived. In addition, there were the looting trains of the Crimean Tatars under their Khan Canibek Giray , which devastated the southern parts of Russia in the years 1632–1634 and even brought them almost to the suburbs of Moscow. The year 1633 was particularly devastating for the Russian rural population. This also led to the military weakening of the Russian side, as Schein's soldiers, who came from the areas devastated by the Tatars, deserted out of concern for their property and families. The Russian commanders fought over the right strategy and found no common denominator against the Poles. Finally, on February 25, 1634, the Russians laid down their arms.
The war ended in the Treaty of Polanów ("Eternal Peace"). The peace treaty confirmed the pre-war status, apart from small border adjustments in the east in favor of the Russian side, including the cities of Serpejsk and Trubchevsk fell to the tsar (Trubchevsk, however, only 10 years later). The Polish king was planning a war against the Ottoman Empire in 1644 and wanted to "calm down" the tsar in the east with a gift, even when the local dignitaries resisted this royal plan, albeit pointless. In addition, Russia undertook to pay war compensation of 20,000 rubles in gold to Poland, while King Władysław IV formally dropped his claim to the Russian throne.
- Mirosław Nagielski: Diariusz kampanii smoleńskiej Władysława IV 1633–1634 , DiG, 2006, ISBN 83-7181-410-0 .
- Dariusz Kupisz: Smoleńsk 1632–1634 , Bellona, 2001, ISBN 83-11-09282-6 .
- «Перечневая роспись ратных людей под Смоленском 141-го года» Меньшиков Д.Н. Затишье перед бурей. Боевые действия под Смоленском в июле-августе 1633 года // Война и оружие: Новые исследования иаматер. Научно-практическая конференция 12-14 May 2010 г. СПб., 2010. Ч. II. С. 107