The seedbed preparation , and secondary tillage called, is a special form of tillage that the ground for the uptake of seeds or seedlings to prepare. In gardening , agriculture , landscaping and forest , the procedure is very different depending on the equipment and the requirements of the seeds. In any case, the seedbed is of crucial importance for the germination and field emergence of the seeds and the youthful growth of the plantation , which is considered to be the most sensitive section of plant development ( ontogenesis ).
Optimal seedbed preparation requires the use of equipment that is appropriate to the location and which varies greatly depending on the crop, soil type and region.
The following must be taken into account when selecting the device and the work sequence:
- Soil type ( main soil types and their composition sand, clay, silt and loam)
- Soil condition (soil structure, humus content , nutrient supply , possibly frozen fermentation )
- Field capacity , soil capillary and current moisture status of the crumb
- Terrain shape (flat, level, sloping, hilly, steep - risk of erosion )
- Season of sunshine duration , temperature (heat or risk of frost)
- Weather ( rain expectation ) or watering and sprinkling options
- At Saat
- Sowing methods ( broadcast sowing , seed drilling , precision drilling , direct sowing )
- Depth of placement 0.5–8 cm ( thousand-grain mass , light germs , dark germs , germination temperature)
- When planting (planting process)
- Seedling (placement depth 3–15 cm according to the length of the roots, note the turgescence requirements of the plant material).
- Cuttings , bushes and trees require a different planting hole or planting pit according to their root mass.
Depending on the equipment in question, the work can be carried out with individual devices in several work steps, done with a seedbed combination at once, or even together with the seed in the no-till method . In agriculture, plowing is usually followed by soil breaking, surface leveling and adequate reconsolidation of the crumb . In addition to cultivators , rollers and various types of harrows , the combination devices mainly include PTO-driven devices such as B. the tine rotor . In the no-till method, crop residues (straw) and weeds cause special monitoring requirements for the machine operator and later plant protection .
- Ernst Klapp : Textbook of Arable and Plant Cultivation , 6th edition Berlin, 1967.
- Jiri Petr : Weather and Yield , Developments in Crop Science, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Tokyo and Prague 1991. ISBN 0444-98803-3