The Savo dialects are common in much of eastern Finland. Except in the actual Savo region , its distribution area includes North Karelia , Kainuu , Koillismaa , Central Finland , North and East Hemme and the east of South Ostrobothnia . The wide distribution of the Savo dialects is mainly due to the settlement of previously uninhabited areas by Schwend farmers from Savo from the 16th century. The forest fins in Värmland, Sweden, also spoke a Savo dialect.
The Savo dialects are divided into the following subgroups:
- Kern Savo dialects (from north of Iisalmi to Mikkeli )
- East Savo dialects (North Karelia)
- West Savo dialects (North and East Hames)
- Kainuu dialect (Kainuu, Koillismaa)
- Central Finland dialect (Central Finland).
The differences between the Savo dialects and the standard Finnish language are mainly phonological . The Savo dialects are by no means uniform. The main characteristics of the Savo dialects are:
- The most important isogloss between Western and Eastern Finnish dialects is the equivalent of written d . As in all Eastern Finnish dialects, this sound has dropped out in the Savo dialects or, depending on the surrounding sounds, has been replaced by a sliding sound v , j or h ( tehä instead of tehdä "make").
- In most Savo dialects, written ts corresponds to ht ( mehtä instead of metsä "forest"). The various Savo dialects differ from one another in terms of the level change of this sound ( mehtän , metän or mehän instead of metsän "of the forest"). Only in the southern Savo dialects is ss instead of the written ts ( messä ).
- Simple consonants are geminated between stressed short and unstressed long vowels ( tullee or tulloo instead of tulee "(he / she / it) is coming").
- Connections of l , h and n with another consonant are resolved by inserting a vowel ( silimä , vanaha instead of silmä “eye”, vanha “old”).
- The diphthongs ai and au are opened to ae and ao ( aeka , laolaa instead of aika "time", laulaa "sing").
- Before a font linguistic aa a u or o inserted or before an §§ an i or e ( mua or moa instead maa "Earth", PiÄ or peae instead pää "head", kualikiäryle instead kaalikääryle "stuffed cabbage").
- The final i is canceled, but has an effect through the palatalization of the preceding consonant ( vesj [ vɛsʲ ] instead of vesi "water").
- The consonant groups rk and lk show deviations in the level change ( jälki - jälen instead of jälki - jäljen "the trace - the trace").
- The third person singular has the personal ending -pi or -p ( syöpi or syöp instead of syö "(he / she / it) eats").
- Different personal ending in the second person plural ( työ antoja instead of te annoitte “you gave”).
- Deviating imperative ending ( antoa , antoaten or antooten instead of antakaa "give").
- Martti Rapola: Johdatus Suomen murteisiin . 2nd Edition. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1961.