Scud is the NATO name for various ballistic surface-to-surface missiles from the Soviet Union . The DIA code is depending on the variant SS-1b Scud-A , SS-B 1c scud , SS-1d scud C , SS-1e Scud-D , and SS N-1 Scud-A . Scud missiles are still in use today and are among the most widely used short-range missiles (SRBM) in the world.
The Scud missiles are based on the waterfall anti-aircraft missile, which was developed in the final phase of the Second World War in the German Reich . The Soviet designers of the Scud were Sergei Pawlowitsch Koroljow , Viktor Petrovich Makejew and Aleksei Michailowitsch Isajew, who developed the rocket engine . The production took place u. A. in the Votkinsk engineering factory and between 7,000 and 10,000 rockets were produced. From the 1970s onwards there was extensive proliferation . Scud missiles came inter alia in the Yom Kippur War , Afghan Civil War , the first Gulf War , Gulf War , First Chechen War , Second Chechen War , civil war in Libya , civil war in Syria and in the civil war in Yemen used.
R-11 (SS-1b Scud-A)
→ Main article: R-11 Semlja
The original version R-11 Semlja has the NATO code name SS-1b Scud-A and is designated in the GRAU index 8A61 . The export designation was initially R-11E and later R-170 . The R-11M version, equipped with a nuclear warhead , followed later . This is referred to in the GRAU index 8K61 . The R-11 was introduced to the Soviet Army in 1958 .
F-11FM (SS-N-1 Scud-A)
The R-11F and F-11FM were submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) missiles and had the NATO code name SS-N-1 Scud-A . The F-11F / FM were installed as part of the D-1 missile complex on the submarines of Project 611 (NATO code name Zulu class ) and Project 629 (NATO code name Golf class ). The R-11F was introduced to the Soviet Navy from 1958 .
R-17 (SS-1c Scud-B)
→ main products: R-17
Execution R-17 carries the NATO code name SS-1c Scud-B and is in the gray index 8K14 designated. The entire complex is called 9K72 Elbrus and the export designation is R-300 or R-17E . The R-17 was introduced to the Soviet Army in 1964 and then exported to many countries.
R-17M (SS-1d Scud-C)
→ Main article: R-17
The R-17M , a range-enhanced version of the R-17, was developed in the Soviet Union from 1965. The project was canceled in the early 1970s. Around two decades after the project was canceled, Scud-C derivatives appeared in North Korea and Iran , all of which stem from the Soviet R-17M draft. This version bears the NATO code name SS-1d Scud-C and in the GRAU index it is designated 9K77 or 9K72M Rekord . The R-17M has the same dimensions as the R-17 and has a range of 450–500 km with a warhead of 750 kg.
R-17MU (SS-1e Scud-D)
→ Main article: R-17
This version appeared in North Korea, Iran and Syria in the late 1990s . There is not much reliable data about the Scud-D and there are no publicly available photos of this rocket. This version bears the NATO code name SS-1d Scud-D and in the GRAU index it is designated 9K72MU . In North Korea the Scud-D is also called Hwasong-7/9 and in Iran Shahab-2 . The R-17MU has a range of over 700 km with a warhead of 500 kg.
→ Main article: R-17
From the late 1960s onwards, an R-17 version with an end-phase steering system was developed in the Soviet Union. The development of the R-17WTO designated missile was canceled in 1989. The entire complex is called 9K72-1 Aerofon . In older sources, the R-17WTO is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Scud-D.
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