Speech disorder

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Classification according to ICD-10
F80 Circumscribed developmental disorders of speech and language
F81 Localized developmental disorders of school skills
F84.0-F84.1 autism
F98.5 stutter
F98.6 Rumble
G31.0 Progressive isolated aphasia
R47 Speech and language disorders, not elsewhere classified
R48 Dyslexia and other tool disorders, not elsewhere classified
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

A speech disorder or a speech impairment is a disorder of the thought production of speech. Language structure and ability to speak are impaired. In contrast, the speech disorder primarily affects the motor generation of sounds. Speech and speech disorders can also occur together.


A distinction must be made between the following types of speech disorders:

Speech defects and speech disorders are classified according to Kainz, Jussen and Heese as follows.

Complete absence of language development

This is the most serious language disorder ever. Deaf dumbness (surdomutitas) can be a result of congenital or acquired deafness , "brain damage" and autism (especially in the Kanner type ) can also lead to dumbness .

Inhibited language development

Under with grammar is defined as the inability sets according to the rules of grammar to form properly. Morphological errors in word inflection (e.g. a beautiful girl) and syntactic errors in word order in a sentence (e.g. I'm going home soon) are signs of a dysgrammatic language disorder.

As a result of a general mental and physical development delay (e.g. mental retardation ), the child's speech development can also be delayed. The causes are birth trauma , damage in the pre-, peri- and postnatal stage as well as damage of a psychological nature ( milieu defects , hospitalism , deprivation syndrome ). Even with autism (especially with the Kanner type ) there is sometimes a delay or even a lack of language development.


Loss of language or aphasia is when the ability to use or understand language originally existed and was then completely or partially lost due to a neurogenic event; Loss of language is actually a misnomer because the language itself is acquired but no longer fully applicable (all or individual modalities and levels can be affected). This can happen due to circulatory disorders in the brain , strokes , tumors , inflammation of the brain or brain trauma.

Loss of speech may also be accompanied by impairments or failures (e.g.) in reading ability ( dyslexia or alexia), writing ability ( dysgraphia or agraphia ), arithmetic ( dyscalculia or acalculia) and / and the conscious control of movements ( dyspraxia or apraxia ) .

There are four types of aphasia (so-called standard syndromes ):

  • Broca's aphasia : Despite largely functioning speech understanding, speech production is disturbed. Telegram style as a distinctive characteristic (agrammatism).
  • Wernicke aphasia : Here the speech understanding is disturbed if the ability to produce speech is largely preserved. Creation of interlaced sentences , neologisms , endless and meaningless speeches ( logorrhea ), as well as a lack of disorder awareness.
  • Amnestic aphasia : The word finding is disturbed (word finding disorders - WFS), language production ability and language understanding are available.
  • Global aphasia : This is understood to be a far-reaching disorder that encompasses both language understanding and language production.

In addition to these, the types of non-standard syndromes are also distinguished:

In a high percentage of people with aphasia, the disease is associated with unilateral paralysis ( hemiparesis ).

Related topics

Web links

Wiktionary: Language errors  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: language disorder  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations