The subthalamus is part of the interbrain ( diencephalon ), which is primarily responsible for controlling gross motor skills . The most important structures of the subthalamus are the subthalamic nucleus and the pallidum , which works as the center of the extrapyramidal motor system , is the antagonist to the corpus striatum and is roughly divided into a larger motor-promoting and a smaller motor-inhibiting part.
The nucleus subthalamicus (often abbreviated to STN , older names Corpus subthalamicum Luysi, Luys body , named after the French neuropathologist Jules Bernard Luys) is primarily connected to the pallidum, from which it both receives signals and sends signals to them . It is inhibited by the motor-promoting part of the pallid and has a stimulating effect on the motor-inhibiting part of the pallid (via glutamate ). Thus it takes on an important impulse inhibiting function.
|species||Number of neurons||volume|
|rat||~ 25,000||~ 0.8 mm³|
|Common marmoset||~ 35,000||~ 2.7 mm³|
|Macaques||~ 155,000||~ 34 mm³|
|Baboons||~ 230,000||~ 50 mm³|
|People||~ 560,000||~ 240 mm³|
- Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Luys, Jules Bernard. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 874.
- C. Hammond et al .: Latest review on the Mechanism of Action of Deep Brain Stimulation . Movement Disorders 23, 2008.
- Clement Hamani, Jean A. Saint ‐ Cyr, Justin Fraser, Michael Kaplitt, Andres M. Lozano: The subthalamic nucleus in the context of movement disorders . In: Brain . tape 127 , no. 1 , January 1, 2004, ISSN 0006-8950 , p. 4–20 , doi : 10.1093 / brain / awh029 ( oup.com [accessed on August 16, 2018]).