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Anatomy-Basal Ganglia-A.jpg

The subthalamus is part of the interbrain ( diencephalon ), which is primarily responsible for controlling gross motor skills . The most important structures of the subthalamus are the subthalamic nucleus and the pallidum , which works as the center of the extrapyramidal motor system , is the antagonist to the corpus striatum and is roughly divided into a larger motor-promoting and a smaller motor-inhibiting part.

The nucleus subthalamicus (often abbreviated to STN , older names Corpus subthalamicum Luysi, Luys body , named after the French neuropathologist Jules Bernard Luys) is primarily connected to the pallidum, from which it both receives signals and sends signals to them . It is inhibited by the motor-promoting part of the pallid and has a stimulating effect on the motor-inhibiting part of the pallid (via glutamate ). Thus it takes on an important impulse inhibiting function.

Damage to the subthalamic nucleus leads to the clinical picture of ballism or, in the case of a one-sided disorder, hemiballism .

Electrical stimulation of the STN using implanted microelectrodes can help alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease .

Anatomical readings
species Number of neurons volume
rat ~ 25,000 ~ 0.8 mm³
Common marmoset ~ 35,000 ~ 2.7 mm³
Macaques ~ 155,000 ~ 34 mm³
Baboons ~ 230,000 ~ 50 mm³
People ~ 560,000 ~ 240 mm³

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Luys, Jules Bernard. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 874.
  2. C. Hammond et al .: Latest review on the Mechanism of Action of Deep Brain Stimulation . Movement Disorders 23, 2008.
  3. Clement Hamani, Jean A. Saint ‐ Cyr, Justin Fraser, Michael Kaplitt, Andres M. Lozano: The subthalamic nucleus in the context of movement disorders . In: Brain . tape 127 , no. 1 , January 1, 2004, ISSN  0006-8950 , p. 4–20 , doi : 10.1093 / brain / awh029 ( [accessed on August 16, 2018]).

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