A Wuhr (plural Wuhre , Wühre , Wuhren or Wühren ) is an artificial watercourse in the southern Black Forest, in the Hotzenwald region . Furthermore, the term is also used in southern Germany and in German-speaking Switzerland as a synonym for weir or flood protection dam . The use as a term for artificial watercourses is limited to regions in the southern Black Forest.
The exact time of the construction of the Wühre in the southern Black Forest is not known. According to Metz, mentions of the Wühre in the late Middle Ages indicate, without mentioning any evidence, that they were laid out in the southern Black Forest in the late 12th century. Since the settlement of the high elevations of the former county of Hauenstein began in the 13th century at the earliest, it can be assumed that the Wühre there will be built in the following period at the earliest. Data on the first mentions of individual currencies are given below in the description of individual currencies. The original task of the Wühre was to provide the driving force for the bellows and forging hammers in the ironworks and for sawmills and grain mills. Other uses, in particular meadow irrigation, which are outside of the operating hours, i.e. at night on Sundays and Holidays followed, were of secondary importance and only gained in importance with the decline of mills and smelters. Nevertheless, the various interests in use in the 18th and 19th centuries 19th century reason for countless trials.
Duties of the Wühre
Wühre transport water from a source of water with a slight gradient to its destination. Waters that cross in the course of the Wuhr are usually absorbed by the Wuhr. Wühre become
- Energy generation for z. B. hammer mills, mills and sawmills,
- Domestic water supply
utilized. The Wühre in the southern Black Forest was not particularly unusual as a moat. Watering ditches extending hundreds of meters in length and partly in branched courses (e.g. watering ditches on the meadow slopes of the meadow valley or through the fields of the Rhine plain) were in most of the villages of the southern Black Forest, including in the places between Wehra and Alb was created to accelerate snowmelt in spring and improve fertility in the period before artificial fertilization. What distinguishes the Wühren from these is on the one hand their name and on the other hand their often extended length.
Wage between Wehra and Schlucht
The Hochsaler Wuhr is the longest Wuhr in the Hotzenwald. At its origin, the district of Mühle (in the south of Herrischried ), it is fed by the water of the Murg at 3 outlets, so-called scoops, and by a former tributary of the Murg from Segeten and flows through Oberwihl and Hochsal . In connection with the Hochsaler Wuhr , reference is made to an order from 1453 in the course of a renewal of the water rights in 1588. The sale of half the mountain Gersegge by the monastery Säckingen is an already in 1335 water fords called. The Hochsaler Wuhr has the Seltenwuhr , dals Seitenwuhr , and from it the Rotzelwuhr branches off 1.3 km north of Rotzel by means of a water divider. Further important documents for the Hochsaler Wuhr are from the years 1545 (contract letter), 1666 (notification); 1667 (arbitration award), 1670 (contract letter), 1781 a. 1795 (judgments). In addition, there are innumerable pages of documents on legal disputes regarding the use of water. Efforts have been made since the middle of the 19th century to transfer the legal relationships at the Hochsaler Wuhr into modern times, which led to the establishment of a Wuhr cooperative at the beginning of the 20th century. At this time the Wuhr still supplied seven companies with water power: A silk ribbon weaving mill, formerly a tannery and Lohmühle, in Oberwihl; a "customer mill" in Oberwihl; a silk ribbon weaving mill in Rotzel; a sawmill in Niederwihl; a sawmill in Hochsal, a customer mill in Hochsal and a mechanical silk ribbon weaving mill in Laufenburg. Four households in Oberwihl obtained their water supply from the Wühre. Today the water and soil association "Hochsaler-Wühre" is responsible for the maintenance of the Wühre .
The Heidenwuhr , also known as Haidenwuhr , rises in the upper Seelbachtal from a tributary of the Hauensteiner Murg, southeast of Hütten, municipality of Rickenbach (Hotzenwald) at about 790 m above sea level. NN. From there, the Wuhr is led about 7.5 km in a south-westerly direction along the mountains, and then to the north-west of Egg into the Schöpfebachtal . After around 2.3 km, the Wuhr directs part of the water towards the mountain lake, which it reaches over the last 70 m through a tunnel. After leaving the lake through a 90 m long tunnel, several channels served to supply the individual farms. Since 1805, the lake has served as a compensation basin to ensure a constant water supply for the factories located in Bad Säckingen in the course of industrialization.
The Hänner-Wuhr (also known as Hännemer Wühre ) is named after the place Hänner , a district of the municipality of Murg, through which the Wuhr flows. It was first mentioned in a document in 1544. The water is derived from the Hauensteiner Murg at its source north of Hottingen , municipality of Rickenbach. Then the Wuhr runs east around the town of Hottingen to the south. After Hänner has flowed through, the Wuhr runs south, takes in the Sägenbach and flows through the Oberhof district of the Murg community. On the way to the confluence with the Upper Rhine, the Hännerwuhr flows through the hamlet of Hammer in Binzgen , a district of Laufenburg (Baden) . In earlier times, water drove the hammer forge here. In the further course up to the mouth, the water of the Hännerwühre was repeatedly used to generate energy. Today, the Wuhr is maintained by a cooperative.
The Seltenwuhr is a short side wall of the Hochsaler Wuhr , which branches off water from the Breitebach (later Schildbach ) and feeds it into the Hochsahler Wuhr before Oberwihl, municipality of Görwihl .
The Berauer Wuhr is a former Wuhr that has now practically been completely buried. In the past, it carried water from the Mettma to Berau , municipality of Ühlingen-Birkendorf , and there, among other things, powered a mill near the former monastery (which is still part of the village today). The water was then, depending on where it was last used, in the Weihergraben over the steep slope of the Schlucht valley or in the Retschengraben over the steep slope of the Schwarzatal into the Schwarza .
|Wuhrname:||Water name:||Height above NN:||Water name:||Height above NN:||artificially:||total:|
|Hochsaler Wuhr||Murg south of Herrischried
|approx. 820 m
- approx. 840 m
Rhine u. Zelggraben
near Laufenburg u. Luttingen
|approx. 310 m||21.4 km||21.4 km|
|Hänner-Wühre||Murg north of Hottingen||approx. 715 m||Rhine u. Andelsbach
|approx. 310 m||11.3 km||12.6 km|
|Heidenwuhr||Schneckenbach||approx. 805 m||Schöpfebach in Bad Säckingen||approx. 340 m||10.0 km||12.2 km|
|Berauer Wuhr||Mettma||approx. 770 m||Schlucht (indirect)||approx. 460 m||nn km||8 km *|
Stellenbächle , Wermutsbächle
|approx. 740 m||Schildbach (indirect)||approx. 610 m||2.7 km||3.6 km|
|Rear walls||Höllbach||approx. 750 m||Lower course of the Eschenbächle||approx. 680 m||2 km|
|lost part||Eschenbächle||approx. 757 m||Höllbachzweig of the Hinteren Wühre||approx. 708 m||approx. 1.0 km||3.0 km|
|Brutschywuhr||Seelbach * (Digeringen)||approx. 360 m||Seelbach (Dieg.) , Schreiebach||approx. 310 m||2.2 km||2.2 km|
|Donkey rage||Altbach (Niedergebisbach)||approx. 870 m||Murg||approx. 790 m||1.9 km||1.9 km|
|Rotzelwuhr||Hochsaler Wuhr||approx. 629 m||Andelsbach (indirect)||approx. 500 m||1.8 km||1.8 km|
|Front watch||Eschenbächle||approx. 710 m||Steimelbach||approx. 665 m||1.6 km|
|Branch||Front watch b. Görwihler moss||approx. 698 m||nn to the Höllbach||approx. 680 m||approx. 0.3 km||1.9 km|
|Rare||Breitenbach||approx. 780 m||Hochsaler Wuhr||approx. 760 m||1.0 km||1.0 km|
|Stangenmattwuhr||Murg||approx. 680 m||Altbach (Hottingen)||approx. 670 m||0.9 km||0.9 km|
|* Specification or value according to METZ||Total:||70.5 km|
Winning names and certificates with reference to Wuhr
Some of the still existing artificial bodies of water were only referred to as Wuhr in individual documents, probably because the term had temporarily found its way into the official language of Baden, while others are drained watercourses that can only be deduced from historical documents or from names of winners and places can be.
Lost struggles between Wehra and Schlucht
Gained name "Heuelwuhr" west of Hornberg, municipality of Herrischried, in the Peterlgraben area apparently indicates a lost Wuhr. In order to verify this currency, traces would have to be searched for in the area due to the lack of documents.
To the east of Rippolingen, municipality of Bad Säckingen, the name Wühre can be found in the Heimbach valley. The height conditions allowed a discharge from the Heimbach to Rippolingen, but the place itself is on the source horizon and should have had little need for water. The same applies to Obersäckingen, so that an abandoned mill in Heimbachtal would most likely be the operator of the Wühre.
Dignity; middle Alb valley
In two documents from 1520 and 1555, a place Wühre is mentioned in connection with the places Niedingen, Bildstein, Ballenberg, Wittenschwand, Kutterau, Niedermühle, Immeneich, which so far cannot be identified or interpreted.
The Wuhr system on the lower reaches of the meadow
For individual places on the lower reaches of the meadow, worms have been documented as early as the late Middle Ages, which have grown from place to place over the centuries to form a Wuhr system or Wuhr strand. These clocks still exist in large sections in the following commercial channels, in others they are documented by documents or are still recorded on the basis of profit names.
Creation of a clock; Schopfheim, Gündenhausen, Maulburg, Steinen
The creation of a Wuhr building can be seen in the document “Decision between the meadow owners in Schopfheim, Gündenhausen and Maulburg and the municipality of Steinen about the construction of a Wuhr” from 1660.
Behind the Wuhr; Stones
A gain southeast of the municipality of Steinen and south of a diversion from the right bank of the meadow is called "Hinter dem Wuhr". After a distance of approx. 1.9 km through the village, this Wuhr was returned to the meadow west of Steinen.
Wuhr, Wuhrwesen u. Wuhrgenossenschaft; Brombach
A whole series of documents report on the currency system in Brombach, municipality of Lörrach. Lt. Finding aid: “Comparison between Hans Diebolt Reich von Reichenstein and the municipality of Lörrach because of the new Wuhres and moat running through the village of Brombach” (1595); “The Brombacher trade and Wässerungs-Wuhr (fishing in the meadow) ruined by the fishermen in the meadow valley” (1796); "Damming and Wuhrwesen zu Brombach" (1769); “Formation of a cooperative of Brombacher interested parties” (1887); "Brombach Spezialia Amt Lörrach Wasserwesen Landbau Group of the meadow owners of the Lörracher Feldteich against the other comrades of the Wuhrgenossenschaft Brombach - Lörrach cost allocation" (1889). After its creation, the Brombacher Wuhr was expanded to include Lörrach and Stetten up to and including Riehen (BS) (CH) according to the representations from the 18th century. The exit and discharge that still exists today on the left bank of the meadow is apparently based on a contract from 1595 between Hans Diebolt Reich von Reichenstein and the municipality of Lörrach on account of the new Wuhr and moat running through the village of Brombach.
In 1777 a document "Müller Schmiedlin in Röttlersweiler against the mat owners [because of] maintenance of the Röttler Mühlen-Wuhres" testifies to a Wuhr in Rötteln, municipality of Lörrach, as a diversion from the right bank of the meadow.
Wuhr, Stettener Wuhr; Lörrach, Tumringen and Stetten
For this purpose, the archives contain a “list of goods in Lörracher spell that come up against the Wuhr” (1595), the documents “Arbitral verdict in the dispute between the communities of Stetten and Lörrach because of the Stettener Wuhr” (1661) and “creation of the new Wuhres in the meadow near Tumringen ”(1786–1790). The documents apparently refer to a continuation of the Brombacher Wuhr, which ran for a length of approx. 6 km to the Swiss border south of the unregulated meadow, from where it continues today for another 3 km in the Riehen area, until it comes into one again subsequent diversion from the meadow flows. In the maps of the 18th century the artificial water is written as "Canal". With the correction of the meadow, a new diversion will be created from the left bank of the meadow opposite Tumringen and the water in the upper reaches will be marked as a “commercial canal”. The maps show that "India Fabrique" (India factory) in Lörrach and a mill between Lörrach and Stetten were supplied with water power and water. In the lower reaches, the artificial watercourse in the Stetten area is called “pond” and in current maps in Switzerland it is called “new pond”.
Wuhr at the mill pond; Because on the Rhine
Documents from August 1756 mention a "Wuhr am Mühlteich" in connection with mill water and meadow irrigation. However, it is unclear whether this refers to the body of water or the weir, but from the disputes with Basel listed below, more artificial watercourses can be assumed.
Currency opening, currency; Riehen and Basel
From the time between 1749 and 1795, four disputes with the city of Basel and its suburb of Riehen are recorded from the finding aid of the General State Archives: 1749 and 1755 respectively “Settlement of the differences between the state of Basel and the community of Weil [about] the Wuhr opening, the mill pond etc . "1764" Differences between Weil, Riehen and Basel, currency of the meadow and impairment by mat watering. "1795" Wuhr and watering differences between Weil, Riehen and Basel ".
Wuhren in the outskirts of the southern Black Forest
Wuhr Weeg; St. Peter
A “plan over the front divorce line of the Rohr-Allments” from 1768 mentions a “Wuhr Weeg”, although no reference to an artificial watercourse has been confirmed so far.
From the file “Ehrenstetten Spezialia Amt Staufen; Trade ”from the years 1846/47 is a dispute between“ Knöbel Müller versus Federer Gerber because of the production of a Wuhr ”. In the "overview plan of the Ehrenstetten district" from 1884, several diversions from the Möhlin for local mills, namely Felsen-, Hintere u. Front mill recognizable. In addition, the district map shows numerous moats.
Making a Wuhr; Dottingen
A file "Dottingen Spezialia Amt Staufen Landbau" from 1845/46 deals with the "complaint of the former mayor Zimmermann of ball rights due to a contribution to the production of a Wuhr". Already in the maps "after 1750" and from 1793 east of Oberdottingen, south of the Castellberg, a diversion on the right bank of the Sulzbach is shown in an artificial watercourse which flows into the Sulzbach again at Niederdottingen and immediately turns into a diversion on the left bank that supplied the "lower mill with power". The artificial watercourses extend for about 2.1 kilometers. The “overview plan of the Dottingen u. Ballenrechte ”from the year 1883 also shows a branched irrigation network, whereby no“ Wuhr ”designation emerges from these maps.
Wuhr; St. Ilgen
For the place St. Ilgen, municipality Sulzburg, in a "judgment in the dispute between the St. Trudpert monastery and the residents of St. Ilgen about a Wuhr zu St. Ilgen" from 1396, a body of water is probably mentioned in the sense of this article, whereby however, a confirmation is not yet available.
Currency rate ; Dattingen (Muellheim)
From the years 1798/99 a Berain renewal about the Wuhr-, Weg- and dehydration interest of the Neumatten im Dattinger Bann is documented. For Dattingen, the map from 1769/70 shows only an artificial body of water west of the place as a connection between the Ehebach, which previously ran through the place and flows into the "Holebach", today "Holenbach", and the "Zuntzinger Bach", today " Zunzmattbach ". In the district map from 1878, some hydraulic engineering interventions, usually straightening, and a mill ditch can be seen. A confirmation of the Wuhr concept could not be found.
Wuhrhof u. Mühlen-Wuhr; Efringen
A "fiefdom letter for Georg Friedrich Kammüller zu Kandern via the Wuhrhof zu Efringen" from 1824 indicates a Wuhr there. The former St-Blasian Wuhrhof is located on the Engebach, "Engelbach" according to the district map of 1876, south of the former town center of Efringen. The history of the Wuhr is incomprehensible with the documents viewed so far. Another document about the "maintenance of the Efringer Mühlen-Wuhres, whether the Enge Bruck, also the creation of a trap in the mill pond under an imaginary bridge for the superfluous drainage of water into the old brook, no less the preservation of the Känel over the mill pond, thereby the mountain water Downpours must take its course ”from the year 1775 apparently refers to a diversion on the right bank from the Engebach northeast of the former town center of Efringen.
In 1738 a document reports the "opening of the watering ditch and the creation of the Wuhr" on the Kander. Here the term Wuhr is possibly only applied to the weir. It is unclear whether the document refers to the diversion from the Kander from its left bank north of Rümmingen or to the Mühlkanal, which was fed from the right bank of the Kander and extends southwest from Rümmingen to Binzen.
The artificial body of water mentioned in the 1457 “contract of the city of Säckingen with the neighbors of the Wuhr, which is to serve the miller at Säckingen, about this Wuhr” has not yet been determined. It is reasonable to assume that it was a water from the ponds, fed by the “Schöpfebach”, today “Gewerbebach”, north of the former monastery area, which powered a mill in the local “Mühlematten” area near the monastery.
Wuhr; Waldshut, Gurtweil u. Koblenz (CH)
A document from 1698 refers to the "joint irrigation of the Schlattmatten and repair of the Wuhrs from Waldshut, Koblenz and Gurtweil". It is known that the Schluchtwiesen and Schlatt in the area west of the confluence with the Wutach were criss-crossed by moats and impact structures. Individual dry-lying structures can still be found in the area and Gurtweil still has two artificial or designed watercourses, the Mühlebach and the Landgraben.
In the map “Grund-Riss über die Abmessierter und Grundgut zu Offtringen” from 1804, today's mill canal above the Reuentaler Mühle is written as “Wuhr- or Mühle-Bach” and from the “Wuhrwies” / “Wuhrwiese” "And" Wuhrhalden "lined. This diversion on the left bank of the Wutach is still located south of Untereggingen and flows back into the Wutach after 4.9 km at the southern end of Wutöschingen. On this way, the “Wuhr Bach” takes up the side waters from the eastern slopes of the Wutach Valley, including the Kesselgraben and Gizigraben.
The win is to the east of Obermettingen, municipality of Ühlingen-Birkendorf, whereby it was a diversion from the Dorfbach presumably for meadow irrigation.
Here only the name is known to the northwest of Mauchen, municipality of Stühlingen, although it must have been a diversion of the Mauchenbach.
The Gewann "Wuhr" is located southwest of Schwaningen, municipality of Stühlingen, whereby it essentially refers to the still existing exit and introduction on the right bank of the Ehrenbach, which is still mapped with a length of 1.1 km today.
Wuhräcker / In the Wuhräcker; Eberfingen
These winning names are recorded for about the same area northeast of Eberfingen, municipality of Stühlingen, on the right of the Wutach in the map "Overview plan of the district Eberfingen" or in the current topographic maps. Traces of a Wuhr have not yet been confirmed on the right of the Wutach. In the map from 1882, a branched "Wässerungscanal" is shown to the left of the Wutach directly to the east of the Gewann, including the Löhrenbach.
Wuhren outside the southern Black Forest and the Rhine plain
In the course of history, the Wuhr term has tied its way to more remote areas through old property relationships or through people who have carried the term outwards.
Sisselfeld worms; Sisseln (AG) (CH)
The Säckingen monastery had properties on the other side of the Rhine, which is why the Wuhr term was probably used on the other side of the Rhine. A map from the second half of the 18th century, "GRUND-RJSS over the main and next to Wurt including the mats on the so-called Sisselfeld and Hauptschwellen including ablöß" documents watering water. In addition, there is a “land register on all formerly Stiftische Güter zu Saeckingen” dated September 28, 1773, in which the “Wuren” are named and related to the property. In Sisselfeld, which is south of Obersäckingen on the Swiss side of the Rhine, the Säckingen monastery owned properties. Since the "Wuren" are not mentioned in connection with the feeding water, it can only be assumed from the Dufour map, TK100, from 1863 that it must have been a diversion from the "Sissel Bach", which is still marked there seems to be.
Wuhr to the two mills; Schleitheim (SH) (CH)
The “comparison between the Reichenau Abbey and the Counts Eberhard and Hug von Lupfen and the Wuhr to the two mills in Schleitheim” from the year 1312 apparently refers to the Schleitheim waters of Taalmbach and Begginger Bach. The Wuhr itself is not yet in the available maps made out and the text of the certificate has not yet been evaluated.
Documents from the 19th century report on "So-called Wuhre on the manorial meadows" (1852); von Gewannen "Wühre" (1877) and "Wuhröschle" (1890).
Wuhr at the mill; Goldach (SG), Horn and Tübach (TG) (CH)
From the year 1636 a "comparison between the communities Horn, Goldach and Tubach over the borders and the Wuhr bei der Mühle" has been handed down. The locations are on the southeastern shore of Lake Constance. In what sense the word Wuhr is to be understood here, a study of the certificate requires.
Wuhren / Wiehren in the sense of a protective dam
The documents for Wuhren in the area of Altbreisach, as well as the documents for Wuhren an der Dreisam around Freiburg and the local Wuhr ordinance deal with the dams built at that time against floods and changes in the river courses. The Wiehre district of Freiburg also got its name from this. Up to now, the upper, middle and lower walls near Häg-Ehrsberg can neither be traced back to protective dams, weirs nor to weirs within the meaning of this article.
- R. Metz: Geological regional studies of the Hotzenwald , Moritz Schauenburg Verlag, Lahr, 1980
- Andreas Haasis-Berner: Water for the nuns. The Berauer Wuhr (Kr. Waldshut). In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg , Volume 40, 2011, Issue 2, pp. 120 f. ( PDF )
- Grand Ducal Cultural Inspectorate Waldshut; Expert opinion concerning the transformation of the Hochsaler Wuhrgenossenschaft into a statutory cooperative; 1904.
- Finding aid entries and online documents from the General State Archives in Karlsruhe.
- Topographic map of the GRAND DUCHY of BADEN based on the general survey of the Grand Ducal Military Topographical Bureau , Sect. XII.2. and sect. XII.3. 1846/47; Scale 1: 50000.
- Chart of Swabia by Prof. JGF von Bohnenberger , IA von Amman and EH Michaelis , 1798–1828, sheets Wiese , Wutach and Basel ; Scale approx. 1: 86400.
- Topographic map of the State Surveying Office of Baden-Württemberg , sheets: Wehr , Görwihl , Bad Säckingen and Laufenburg 1971–1976, scale 1: 25000.
- Topographic map of Baden-Wuerttemberg, digital version, 2005 of the Land Surveying Office Baden-Wuerttemberg.
- Historical revision and district maps for the named locations from the digital online publications of the General State Archives in Karlsruhe.