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Location of Azzi

The country of Azzi in northeastern Anatolia is known from the Hittite annals. It was near Ḫayaša or was a province of the same, or both names were used synonymously. That is why the terms Azzi-Ḫajaša or Ḫajaša-Azzi are often found.


A country Azzu is already known from the reign of I. Hattusili known. At the time of Ḫattušili III. the enemy from Azzi had wreaked havoc in the Upper Land and reached Samuḫa . Equating this Azzi with the Azzu of the Ḫattušili is not really certain.

Mursili II led two campaigns to Azzi, the second in his tenth year of reign, after a campaign to Kummanni the previous year. The statistician Huber assumes because of the mention of a solar eclipse in the text KUB 14.4 that this campaign in 1339 or 1334 BC. Took place. Volkert Haas, on the other hand, gives, based on astronomical calculations, the most likely dates June 14, 1312 or April 13, 1308 BC. BC (see also the solar eclipse of Muršilis ). Under Tudḫaliya IV. Azzi, Kaška and Lukka are listed as hostile countries (KUB XXVI 12+ II 15 '). The fortress Ura (not to be confused with the Cilician Ura ) was located near the border with Azzi (KUB 14.17i ii 21-4, w. And KUB2 6.79 i 15-17, duplicate).


  • Aripša - possibly to be identified with Giresun .
  • Dukkama / Tukamma


Claudia Sagona wants to locate Azzi in the Erzurum area . Aripsa was on the "sea", here Lake Van , the plain of Erzincan and the Black Sea come into question.

Theories Related to the Amazons

After early as 1910 John Garstang , the term Amazons for a female-dominated, small Asian nation of Greek mythology had brought the country Azzi in conjunction, the historian led Frederick Cornelius Amazones concrete from the composition of the , a term for wife or mother in many languages , in combination with Azzi-udne (Hittite for country of Azzi), whereby he assumed that the Hittite form he adopted am-azziudnejas (= "woman of the Azzi country") was used by the Greeks in folk etymology in Amazones (including the possible meaning "the breastless") were changed. While Cornelius' etymological derivation of the Amazons found little positive response in specialist circles and evidently also spread, his further, very speculative statements that women actually took over power in Azzi, which towards the end of the 13th century BC. B.C. had become a serious threat to the Hittite Empire, received no attention, his theory found quite wide dissemination in popular scientific literature up to popular culture. The ancient orientalist Ahmet Ünal has recently also represented an etymological connection between the Amazons and Azzi .

See also


  • John Garstang , Oliver R. Gurney : The Geography of the Hittite Empire. British Institute of Archeology at Ankara, London 1959, pp. 36-39.
  • Hans Gustav Güterbock : The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as told by his Son, Mursili II. Journal of Cuneiform Studies Vol. 10 No. 4, 1956, pp. 107-130.
  • Ernst Herzfeld : The Persian Empire. Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient Near East. Edited from the estate by Gerold Walser . Steiner, Wiesbaden 1968.
  • RH Hewsen: Armenia. A historical Atlas University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2001.
  • Peter J. Huber: The solar omen of Muršili II. Journal of the American Oriental Society 121/4, 2001, 640-644.
  • Stefano de Martino: Le accuse di Mursili II. Alla regina Tawa-nanna secondo il testo KUB XIV 4. In: Stefano de Martino, Fiorella Imparati (ed.): Studi e Testi 1. LoGisma, Florence 1998, pp. 19-48 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Charles Burney : Historical Dictionary of the Hittites. 2nd ed., Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham - London 2018, p. 49
  2. including: Trevor Bryce : The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire . Routledge 2009, p. 97, sv Azzi-Hayasa .
  3. so already Emil Forrer : Hajasa-Azzi. Caucasica 9, 1931, 1-24
  4. Peter J. Huber , The Solar Omen of Muršili II. Journal of the American Oriental Society 121/4, 2001, 640-644
  5. Volkert Haas: History of the Hittite Religion (= Handbook of Oriental Studies Volume 15). Brill, Leiden, 1994, p. 27.
  6. ^ Itamar Singer , Western Anatolia in the thirteenth century BC according to the Hittite sources. Special Number in Honor of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr. Richard Barnett. Anatolian Studies 33, 1983, 217
  7. ^ John Garstang , Oliver Robert Gurney : The geography of the Hittite empire. British Institute of Archeology at Ankara, London 1959, p. 38 f .; Charles Burney: Historical Dictionary of the Hittites. 2nd ed., Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham - London 2018, p. 49.
  8. ^ Antonio Sagona / Claudia Sagona, Archeology at the North-East Anatolian frontier, I. A historical geography and a field survey of the Bayburt province. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 14. Louvain, Peeters 2004, 27
  9. ^ Friedrich Cornelius: History of the Hittites. With special consideration of geographical conditions and legal history Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1973, pp. 269f.
  10. cf. Josine H. Blok: The Early Amazons. Modern & Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth. Brill, Leiden 1994, p. 28, note 27, who notes that this derivation was only referred to by a third party.
  11. ^ Friedrich Cornelius: History of the Hittites. With special consideration of the geographical conditions and the legal history Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1973, p. 270ff.
  12. z. B. Claudia Schmölders : The wild woman. Mythical stories to marvel, fear and desire. Diederichs 2009 (e-book); Hilde Schmölzer : The lost story of women. 100,000 years of suppressed past. Edition Tau, Mattersberg 1990, p. 42.
  13. z. For example, in the introductory video of the add-on " The Secret of the Amazons " of the computer game The Settlers III, the Amazons are also associated with the Azzi people
  14. Ahmet Ünal: Amazonların Eski Anadolu Kökenleri Hakkında Yeni Kaynak ve Gözlemler. New sources and observations on the Anatolian origin of the Amazons. Cerdrus 1, 2013, pp. 21–32, especially p. 29 f. PDF at (Turkish, with English summary).