Tudḫaliya was the son of the great king Ḫattušili III. During his reign he dealt, together with Prince Nerikkaili , with Piyamaradu , possibly a grandson of the last Arzawian king Uḫḫaziti , who repeatedly attacked Hittite vassals in western Asia Minor. After Ḫattušili's death, Tudḫaliya became great king, whereby his older brother, who was originally intended for this office, was passed over. The reasons for this are unknown. However, various groups of officials had to take a special oath on Tudḫaliya. The Queen Dowager Puduḫepa At the beginning of his reign he was still politically active as the Great Queen, as evidenced by finds of seals that are jointly signed by Tudḫaliya and Puduḫepa.
In Tudḫaliya's reign there was a deterioration in relations with Assyria , which expanded strongly under Tukulti-Ninurta I , and with Aḫḫijawa . In a treaty, Tudḫaliya called on Šaušgamuwa , his vassal Amurru , to prevent Assyrian merchants from passing through and to prevent their trade with ships from Aḫḫijawa in the ports of Amurru. Išuwa , an area in Eastern Anatolia , was lost to the Assyrians. A letter from Tukulti-Ninurta found in Ugarit mentions a victory over a Hittite army in Upper Mesopotamia.
In contrast, Tudḫaliya IV. Was able to annex Cyprus ( Alašiya ), which was an important station of trade in the eastern Mediterranean at that time and had rich copper deposits. Archaeological evidence of a Hittite presence on the island is, however, more than scanty. Furthermore, Tudḫaliya apparently succeeded in bringing Millawanda under Hittite rule, which was long an outpost of Aḫḫijawas in Asia Minor and still at the time of the Tawagalawa letter , which was probably written by Ḫattušili III. was firmly in the hands of Aḫḫijawa. According to the Milawata letter ( CTH 182; KUB 19.55 + KUB 48.90 + KBo 18.117), Walmu , who had been deposed as ruler in Wiluša , found refuge in Millawanda / Milawata (both are equated in research) or Mira . Tudḫaliya strove to reinstate him as vassal king in Wiluša. The letter also indirectly indicates that Milawata had now come under Hittite suzerainty, regardless of whether the recipient was in Milawata or Tarkasnawa from Mira. In the first case, the original representative of Aḫḫijawa in Millawada would have mutated into a Hittite vassal, in the second case the area of Millawanda would have been divided between Tudḫaliya and Tarkašnawa.
The relationship between Tudḫaliyas and Kurunta , the viceroy of Tarḫuntašša, should be considered separately . This came from that of Ḫattušili III. The line of the Hittite royal family that was ousted from the throne. Judging by a state treaty concluded between the two of them, they had a close relationship in their youth:
“Before I, Tudḫaliya, the great king, became king, the deity had already brought me and Kurunta together in friendship. And we were worth each other even then. And we were mutual oath brothers: 'One protect the other!' "
In this state treaty there are some changes compared to an earlier treaty Ḫattušilia III. with Kuruntas more generous for this one. His area of rule was given well-defined borders and the duties and troop positions for the great king were reduced.
In Ḫattuša some seals were found that identify Kurunta as the great king, so that there may be a civil war between Tudḫaliya - but possibly only between his only briefly reigning successor Arnuwanda III. - and Kurunta came, which culminated in Kurunta's takeover of the government. But since after Tudḫaliya's death his sons Arnuwanda III. and then Šuppiluliuma II took over the rule, Kurunta may have lost the disputes over the throne in the end.
In 1986 the aforementioned state treaty with Kurunta was found on a metal plaque in Ḫattuša, which granted him control over Tarḫuntašša in southern Asia Minor. Under Tudḫaliya IV there was brisk building activity, both in the capital Ḫattuša and in the neighboring shrine of Yazılıkaya , in which two representations of Tudḫaliyas can be found, one of them together with his personal patron god Sarruma . He is also credited with building ten dams, including the Gölpınar , Köylütolu and Karakuyu dams . On the rock inscription called Nişantaş in the area of the capital, Tudḫaliya's son Šuppiluliuma II reports on his father's deeds.
- Heinrich Otten : The bronze plaque from Boğazköy. A state treaty of Tutḫalija IV. (= Studies on the Boğazköy texts. Supplement. 1). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1988, ISBN 3-447-02784-3 .
- Horst Klengel : Tutḫalija IV of Ḫatti. Prolegomena to a biography. In: Ancient Near Eastern Research . Vol. 18, No. 2, 1991, pp. 224-238, doi : 10.1524 / aofo.19184.108.40.206 .
- Birgit Brandau, Hartmut Schickert: Hittites. The unknown world power. Piper, Munich et al. 2001, ISBN 3-492-04338-0 .
- Jörg Klinger : The Hittites (= Beck'sche series. 2425). Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-53625-0 , pp. 62, 66, 109, 111-116.
- Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier : Greece and Asia Minor in the late Bronze Age. The historical background of the Homeric epics. In: Michael Meier-Brügger (Ed.): Homer, interpreted by a large lexicon. Files from the Hamburg Colloquium from March 6th to 8th October 2010 at the end of the lexicon of the early Greek epic (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen. New part 21). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-028518-5 , pp. 141–180, here pp. 166 f.
- on the letter and its date, including Harry A. Hoffner, Jr .: Letters from the Hittite Kingdom (= Writings from the ancient World. 15). Edited by Gary M. Beckman. Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta GA 2009, ISBN 978-1-58983-212-1 , pp. 296-313.
- quoted from Jörg Klinger: Die Hittiter. 2007, p. 113.
- detail on Tudḫaliya's lively building activity in and around Hattuša: Peter Neve : Ḫattuša. City of gods and temples. New excavations in the capital of the Hittites (= Zabern's illustrated books on archeology . Vol. 8). von Zabern, Mainz 1993, ISBN 3-8053-1478-7 (2nd, expanded edition, ibid. 1996).
- Yasemin Kuşlu, Üstün Şahin: Water Structures in Anatolia from Past to Present. In: Journal of Applied Sciences research. Vol. 5, No. 12, 2009, digital version (PDF; 797 KB) ). , pp. 2109-2116, (
- Volkert Haas : The Hittite literature. Texts, style, motifs. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2006, ISBN 3-11-018877-5 , p. 91.
- Jörg Klinger: The Hittites. 2007.
Hittite great king
1236–1215 BC Chr.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Hittite great king|
|DATE OF BIRTH||13th century BC Chr.|
|DATE OF DEATH||13th century BC Chr.|