Baccarat (gambling)
Baccarat , also Baccarat or Baccarat is a card - gambling .
The French spelling Baccara is most widespread in the German-speaking area today, the spelling Baccarat has practically disappeared; In the English-speaking world you can find baccarat as well as baccarat with a silent "t" at the end.
The game is said to have been invented in Naples in the 16th century and the name has its origins in a Neapolitan dialect in which baccarat means zero. The name of the game may also be derived from the town of Baccarat, which is located near Lunéville .
Despite these statements regarding the old age, as one often reads in game descriptions in casinos , Baccarat - according to research by David Parlett - is probably much younger and did not emerge until the beginning of the 19th century.
Baccarat used to be offered in two main varieties in casinos: Baccara chemin de fer and Baccara banque . There are other variations of these two ways of playing, today the Punto Banco variant is almost exclusively found.
The term chemin de fer ( French for "railway") is often explained by the fact that the card sledge in this type of game goes around like a small railway. Chemin de fer is James Bond's favorite game and was also a popular pastime of the English King Edward VII , who as Prince of Wales even had to testify in court as a witness in the course of the Tranby Croft or Royal Baccarat Scandal . In the Anglo-Saxon-speaking area, Chemin de fer is also called Chemmy .
A game similar to Baccarat and possibly a precursor is Macau .
General
Baccarat is generally played with six packs of 52-sheet French playing cards , i.e. 312 sheets (see below for exceptions). Real baccarat cards do not have any index marks and have evenly single-colored backs without a pattern. In casinos, three packs with a light pink back and three packs with a light blue back are usually used.
The aim of the game is to score nine points with two or three cards, or at least get closer to nine points than your opponent. The counts of the cards are: ace one point, twos to nines count two to nine points, tens and pictures but zero points. If the cards add up to ten or more points, only the ones place counts; does a player z. For example, a seven and a five counts (7 + 5 = 1 2 ) two points; if he has a six and a four, however, this counts (6 + 4 = 1 0 ) zero points or “baccarat”.
The chief croupier in Baccarat is called the chef de partie or tailleur ; the changeur , who changes chips , is at his side.
Baccarat chemin de fer
Basic rules
Preparations
At the beginning of a game the cards are shuffled by the croupier and couped ( withdrawn ) by a player , the following ceremony is usual: The croupier lays the cards face up on the table and stirs them with both hands, after a while he turns the cards and bets the stirring continues with the now face-down cards and layers them in a pile (the so-called waist ). To coup (cut, take off) the player sitting to the left of the croupier puts a neutral card ( carte de coupe ) on both sides in the pile where he would like to have taken off. The withdrawal itself is carried out by the croupier. He now puts another neutral card ( carte d 'arrêt ) in front of the seventh to last card and places the stack in the card slot (French sabot , "pantine" or "wooden shoe"; English: shoe ). When the neutral card later appears, the coup that has just started (i.e. the single game that has just started) is played to the end and then the cards are reshuffled.
Course of a game
The player who sits at the right hand of the dealer is the banker ( banker , banker) in the first game and gives the dealer his efforts, which he called Bank Total ( Banco want to risk). The other players, the punchers , now bet against the bank.
If the total of the bets of the opponents exceeds the bank amount, then the bets from the neighbor on the right of the banker count starting until the bank amount is reached (see Prime ). Stakes that are not held will be rejected unless the banker raises the banco. If the opponents total less than the current bank amount, the excess amount is withdrawn and returned to the banker; This amount is not played for, it goes “ au garage ” or “ au chocolat ”, the reduced amount is the new Banco.
Once the bets have been made, the banker deals the cards face down as follows: the first is given to the opponent who made the highest bet, i.e. H. the ponte , the banker receives the second card, the ponte card receives the third card, and the banker receives the fourth card again. According to the rituals of the game, the banker places the cards for the ponte on a pallet with which the croupier hands the cards to the ponte.
Drawing rules for the Ponte
Now the Ponte looks at his cards and counts his eyes. Did the Ponte with his first two cards
- 0 to 4 points, he puts his two cards face down next to each other on the table and asks with the words " Carte, s'il vous plaît. "(Eng." Card please ") for another card.
- 5 points, he has free choice to draw a card or to stand still.
- 6 or 7 points, he puts his two cards face superimposed on the table, says " Non, Monsieur " ( "No, sir") or " remnants " ( "yoke") and thus indicates that he has no more cards want to pull.
- 8 or 9 points, he reveals his cards - this is called a naturel or a blow - and says “ Huit ” (“eight”) or “ Neuf ” (“nine”) or “ La petite ” (“little one ”) Blow ") or" La grande "(" big blow "); the banker then also reveals, in this case no third-party cards are drawn.
Draw rules for the banker
When the ponte has declared himself , the banker reveals his cards (he has not looked at them before). If the banker has 8 or 9 points, a third card requested by the Ponte will no longer be issued and will be billed immediately; however, if the banker has 7 or fewer points, he reveals the card that the Ponte may wish to use . Now the banker explains whether he wants to move or not. He plays after the sled if he adheres to the following drawing rules ( tableau de tirage ):
The banker did
- 7 points, he never draws a third card.
- 6 points, he only draws a third card if he gives the Ponte a 6 or a 7.
- 5 points, he draws a third card if he gives the Ponte a 5, 6 or 7, or if the Ponte passes; he has a free choice if a 4 is dealt and fits if a 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10 or a face card is dealt.
- 4 points, he does not draw a card if he gives the Ponte a 1, 8, 9, 10 or a face card, in all other cases the banker buys.
- 3 points, he does not draw a third card if he gives the Ponte an 8, he has a free choice if a 9 is dealt; in all other cases the banker buys.
- 0 to 2 points, he always draws a third card.
win and loss
If both parties are served, the account will be settled; the party with the higher number of points wins; in the event of a tie (“ en cartes ”) the coup is invalid.
If the banker wins, he has to pay a 5% tax on his winnings to the casino (i.e. he wins at a ratio of 0.95 to 1). In this case, the banker may keep the bank. But he may not withdraw any capital; the previous bank sum increased by the profit now forms the new banco. If, however, the stakes of the punchers in the next game do not fully reach the increased bank amount, the banker may withdraw the surplus (see above).
If the punchers win, they receive a profit in the amount of the stake; d. In other words, you win in a ratio of 1 to 1, and no estimate is due. The banker must now hand over the bank and push the sledge to his neighbor on the right. In this case, the so-called minimum banco applies again (see below).
Further rules
Banco
If a player wants to bet an amount equal to the bank amount (the banco ), he says “ Banco ” or “ Banco solo ”; the bets of the other opponents are rejected and the coup is played only between the banker and this one player. It is also possible for two players to play banco together and say “ Banco à deux ”.
If a player wants to bet half the bank amount, he says “ Banco avec la table ” or “ Banco avec ” for short ; the other players can then only bet up to half of the en banque amount. If the banco player wants to play a remaining difference after the stakes of the other punchers on the full bank amount, he says " Banco et la table marche ".
The announcement Banco solo has priority over Banco à deux ; Banco à deux takes precedence over Banco avec .
Suivi
If a player has played banco and lost and would like to play banco again, he says " Suivi "; he then has priority over any other player who also wants to play banco .
suite
If the banker has won and does not wish to hold the bank any longer, he can hand it over and withdraw his capital including the profits, he then says “ Il ya une suite. "Or" La main passe. “The bank is then offered in turn to the current bank; if a player wants to take over the bank, he says “ Passez-moi les cartes. “But if nobody can be found who would like to continue running the bank with the current amount, the bank will be auctioned. If nobody makes a bid, the bank goes to the player who would be the next to receive the bank anyway; this must at least set the minimum banco.
As soon as the suite falls , i.e. the bank loses, the player to the right of the original banker receives the sledge.
Prime
If several players play Banco, so the one who has the privilege ( Prime ), sitting closer to the right hand of the banker. (However, Suivi goes before Prime .)
During a suite, the prime right is determined by the space to the right of the original banker.
The prime right is also decisive for the validity of the pointer's stakes if their sum exceeds the Banco (see above).
Banco double - doubling the bank amount
A player can also play on the side of the banker by bringing chips to the bank with the value of the current bank amount. The banker and fellow banker share an equal share in profit and loss; however, a fellow banker has no say in the bank's decisions, e.g. B. Give a suite or continue to hold the bank, behavior in the volunteer cases.
Limits
Chemin de fer is generally played for very high stakes. The casino only stipulates a minimum banco , ie the minimum amount that a banker must bet, e.g. B. € 100. There is no maximum.
The minimum bet for a single opponent of the bank is usually one tenth of the minimum banco, in this case € 10. If the added bets of all punchers do not reach the minimum banco, the game ends.
Playing
In principle, the game could be ended at any time, more precisely: after each individual game ( coup ), but usually a game is only ended at the end of a " sled ", i.e. H. if the cards had to be shuffled again. The amount that is in the bank at the end of the game naturally belongs to the current banker.
Bank advantage
If both parties behave optimally in the chemin de fer in terms of probability and game theory , then the banker has an advantage of around 1.28% over the punchers .
Descendants of the Chemin de fer
Punto Banco
regulate
Punto Banco differs from Chemin de fer as follows:
The players do not play against each other, but against the casino; d. In other words, the total of the stakes on Punto can therefore exceed the stakes on Banco or vice versa. Of course there is no Banco, Suivi, Suite etc.
A player can arbitrarily (within the limits set by the casino)
- on the profit of the banker ( banco or banker ) or
- to win the player ( punto or player ) or
- Bet on a tie ( Égalité or Tie ).
The payout percentages are as follows:
- Bank ( Banco , Banker ): 19:20 or 0.95: 1
- Player ( Punto , Player ): 1: 1
- Draws ( Égalité , Tie ): 8: 1, sometimes 9: 1.
There are no Volonté cases: The Punto Banco drawing rules state that the "player" (Punto) must buy at five points; Likewise, the "banker" (Banco) must buy with three points and a nine, or with five points and a four.
Since these drawing rules no longer allow any freedom, the game can be played by the croupier and the cards are immediately placed face up. This type of game is the most common today.
Bank advantage
On a long-term average, 9.54% of the games end in a draw, so the advantage of the casino - with Punto Banco you don't bet against each other, but against the casino - for bets on Égalité 14.12%, so this bet is for the player extremely disadvantageous. Even if odds of 9: 1 instead of 8: 1 are offered, the bet with a bank advantage of 4.57% is considerably more disadvantageous than the actual game.
The bets on Punto and Banco are almost equivalent, whereas the bet on Banco is cheaper despite the 5% commission :
Of the remaining 90.46% of all coups, in wins
- 50.68% of the cases the bet on Banco, the advantage of the casino due to the payout ratio of 0.95 to 1 is just 1.18%, and in
- 49.32% of the cases the bet on Punto, the advantage of the casino for these bets is 1.36%.
For comparison: the bank advantage with the simple chances of roulette is 1.35%.
Notes : Strictly speaking, the values given relate to a hypothetical game with an infinite number of card packs. In practice, six or eight packets are used, but the resulting difference is insignificant.
In Commission Free Baccarat , the 5% commission applies to winning banco bets. The payout at Banco is therefore 1: 1, unless the banker wins with 6 points - in this case the payout is only 1: 2. With this variant, the bank advantage is 1.46% and is therefore less favorable than the bet on Punto.
American Baccarat
In American casinos, baccarat is usually played with eight packs, i.e. 416 cards; Otherwise, the game is identical to Punto Banco , but the ceremonial of the chemin de fer is retained: that is, the cards are not laid out face-up by the croupier, but rather given by the guests of the casino; after each loss of the banco chance, the sledge wanders one another Place further etc.
Baccara banque or Baccara à deux tableaux
Basic rules
In baccarat banque , the banker plays against two parties of punchers at the same time. At the beginning of the lot, the bank is auctioned to the highest bidder. The successful player at the auction becomes the banker and gives the croupier an amount equal to his bid, who puts it on the table in front of him as a banco - the successful bid is not a purchase price, but determines the bank's initial gaming capital. The banker now takes a seat in the middle of one long side of the table opposite the croupier and plays against the two halves of the table.
Then the cards are shuffled and couped, the neutral card is placed in front of the last tenth card at Baccara Banque and the pile is placed on the slide.
The punchers place their bets, then the banker divides the cards face down as follows: The first card receives the right half of the table, the second card the left half of the table, the third card the banker, the fourth right again, the fifth left, the sixth the banker .
Now the banker looks at his cards: if he has 8 or 9 points, he reveals, so do the punchers and it is settled. If he has 7 or fewer points, he puts both of his cards face down in front of him. Then the punchers pick up their cards and explain themselves, that is, they reveal or demand a card just like the Ponte at the chemin de fer . Third cards are given openly, the banker decides whether to buy or to stand still after the third card has been given to the punchers. If all parties have been served, it will be settled.
Example : After the deal, the banker holds three points, the right tableau eight points, and the left tableau five points. The player of the right tableau reveals and wins immediately; the player on the left board has a free choice and decides to buy. The banker gives a five and now also decides to buy and gives himself a six. Now the bank holds nine points and wins against the left tableau, which now holds zero points, but not against the right one, as this player has already won the coup by a naturel .
If a pointer wins a coup or is a coup en cartes, the pointeur also receives the cards in the following coup; but if the pointer loses, his neighbor receives the cards in the next coup.
In contrast to the chemin de fer , the banker in baccarat banque can continue to hold the bank even after a lost coup. As long as a player holds the bank, he may not withdraw any capital; he can also hand over the bank at any time ( suite ).
variants
Baccara à banque ouverte or Baccara banque à tout va
The highest bid that a player can place at the auction of the bank is " Banque ouverte "; d. That is, that he undertakes to keep stakes at any level (" Tous les coups sont tenus. ").
Before each coup, the banker must top up the current bank amount to the sum of the bets of the opponents or give up the bank; As usual, prizes may not be withdrawn. With Banque Ouverte there is of course no banco announcement.
Baccara à banque limitée or Baccara banque à hauteur
If the bank does not bid for the highest bid Banque Ouverte , baccarat à banque limitée is played, in which case only three packages are used, namely two packages with the same back color and a third package with a different back color.
If the banker has lost all of his playing capital, the bank is broken and a new auction must take place. In some casinos, however, the banker is allowed to continue banking if he returns the same amount as he started the game with. In earlier times, when the casinos themselves held the bank, a black cloth was spread over the table when the bank was blown up.
If the sum of the bets of the punchers exceeds the amount in the bank, the banker can accept these bets and increase the bank amount accordingly; However, he must then declare Banque Ouverte and, from the following coup, allow stakes of any amount or give up the bank.
Further rules and additions
Banco
As with chemin de fer , you can also wager an amount equal to the bank sum in baccarat banque . In this case, the player must determine whether to place the entire bet on one hand, i.e. H. on a tableau, or the bet à cheval on both halves of the table - in the latter case this means that he places half the bank amount on each of the two tableaux.
If the pointer who played the banco loses , he has the Suivi right - as with the chemin de fer . If he loses a second time, he can play the banco a third time, but not again.
If two or more players want to play banco , the prime right applies, the ranking begins with the first player on the banker's right, then the first player on the left, then the second on the right, and so on. A player registers Banco at each half of the table so the two play in equal parts.
tax
In baccarat banque , too , the banker - unless the casino itself holds the bank - must pay a tax ( cagnotte ) to the casino; this amounts to (one-off) 2.5 to 5% of the capital contributed to the bank. If the estimate is calculated from the winnings instead, it is 2% for Banque limitée or 1.25% for Banque ouverte . If the banker wins a coup against the higher-ranking tableau and loses against the other, the estimate is based on the difference between the stakes on the two tableaux, i.e. that is, losses in a coup are set off against the gains in the same coup.
Otherwise the rules of the Chemin de fer apply .
Bank advantage
In baccarat banque it happens very often that the banker should buy against one tableau, but should pass against the other and thus cannot behave optimally against both tableaux at the same time. In this way, the banker's advantage compared to chemin de fer is significantly reduced, it is only 0.87% instead of 1.28% (see above).
literature
- Claus Grupp: Games of chance with balls, dice and cards. Falken Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1976
- Stewart N. Ethier, The doctrine of chances: Probabilistic aspects of gambling , Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-540-78782-2 , Chapter 19, pp. 597–621, DOI: 10.1007 / 978-3-540-78783- 9_19
- Alexander B. Szanto: Roulette, Trente-et-Quarante, Baccara, Black Jack. Perlen Series , Volume 645, Vienna, 1977
Web links
Individual evidence
- ^ David Parlett: The Oxford Guide to Card Games. Oxford University Press, Oxford New York 1990
- ↑ Baccarat In: Claus D. Grupp: Card games. Falken-Verlag Erich Sicker, Wiesbaden 1975; Pp. 8-12. ISBN 3-8068-2001-5 .
- ^ Commission Free Baccarat. Retrieved June 18, 2020 .