A token [ ʒətɔ ] (also token or token ), at the poker also chip called, is a plastic brand, as play money in corporate and gambling is used. In some cases, the term chip also appears in use for private replacement money.
In addition to the coin-like round tokens, there are also rectangular versions called plaques for higher values. These are more common in Europe while they are rarely used in America.
The French term token is used in classic casinos , as is the language used in many classic casino games such as roulette. For games that, like poker, have their origins in English-speaking countries, almost only the English term chip is used.
In German casinos , chips with a value of between EUR 1 and EUR 10,000 are usually issued. The guests should only place their bets with the tokens; in exceptional cases, bets with real money are permitted, but mostly only on simple chances.
A token from a US casino usually weighs between 8.5 and 10 grams and a maximum of 11.5 grams.
Higher quality, but thus award more expensive chips are often made of a clay / clay mixture ( clay ) or ceramic produced. In the past, tokens made of lacquered ivory were occasionally used. The cheaper chips are pure plastic chips with a metal core that takes care of the weight of the chip.
In the case of chips made from clay, the weight is evenly distributed over the chip body in contrast to chips with a core. Clay chips contain between 7 and 15 percent of clay, a chip made from pure clay would be very brittle. In the private sector, however, chips with a weight between 8 and 13.5 grams are sold in poker cases , although the quality of the chips does not depend on the weight. In terms of diameter , the casino standard of 39 mm has prevailed almost everywhere. Sometimes the edges are beveled (' chamfered '); this makes handling easier, e.g. B. pushing piles together to form stacks. Thrown tokens do not jump across the board.
In contrast to gaming chips in the private sector (where usually not significant amounts of money are played), the "professional" chips in the casino are a means of payment (legally: a promissory note issued by the casino ) with which goods and services such as drinks are sold the casino bar can be paid for. Therefore, in addition to the value, the name of the casino (the debtor) is always noted on them, if only to avoid confusion with chips from other casinos, and in many cases:
- the currency
- a hologram to protect against counterfeiting
- a unique registration number, also to protect against counterfeiting and to avoid mix-ups between the bets of different players, or alternatively:
- a set number or colored set marking that distinguishes the chips of the individual players at a table from one another.
- at present (end of 2007) the introduction of RFID tags to protect against counterfeiting is also being considered.
Historical German tokens in the form of coins from the 18th century to around 1920 were made of brass or bronze and without any value or currency information, but occasionally with the word "Jeton" and only rarely with a year. At princely courts they were mostly made of silver in groschen - or even gold in ducat weight , and not infrequently provided with suggestive pictures, such as B. copulating chickens. Historical personalities, everyday objects or sayings or the goddess Fortuna were also represented. They were used as stakes in the private salons of the upper classes, but also in the taverns of the common people in various card games.
- Butterfly thalers were also mistaken for tokens.
- Red Sigh , a six-pfennig piece from the Leipzig Mint , was last used as a token.
The US- American New Jersey Casino Control Commission stipulates the following token colors for their casinos by law:
|Value in $||colour|
|20,000||"Mustard yellow" (oversized)|
To avoid disputes, tokens with a higher value, usually from 50 euros, are marked with a unique identifying number that the guest can remember if necessary. Chips can usually be placed by the guest on their own responsibility or by one of the croupiers . In roulette, it is possible - in well-equipped casinos - to give a guest color-coded tokens, which he can only use at the issuing table; the bets advertised by him or made himself differ beyond any doubt from those of other players, so that disputes about the origin of the set on the tableau are excluded.
- The placement of chips is also referred to as a position in the language of the player ; accordingly, connoisseurs call the process of placing tokens spots .
- The total number of chips placed and not on the chance of winning is called the mass .
- Chips worth 20 euros are often referred to as Louis or Louis d'or . This goes back to the French roots of the game of roulette, since under Louis XVIII. the French gold coin Louis d'or was worth 20 francs.
- Some casinos sell technically high-quality chips for home roulette players that are optically modeled on their own.
- In Germany, croupiers consider it unprofessional to speak of “chips” in roulette; this means comparatively inferior toy chips.
- Overview and evaluation of available poker chips for private games (English)
- Major forum around chips and tokens (English)
- Definition of terms. Duden; accessed on February 27, 2014
- state.nj.us ( memento of the original from June 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)