Bacterial infection

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Classification according to ICD-10
A49.- Bacterial infection of unspecified location
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

A bacterial infection is the active or passive penetration of bacteria into a plant, animal or human host , their reproduction there and the reaction of the organism that usually follows after the incubation period has expired in the form of a disease called a bacterial infection .

Bacteria can be taken in from the environment , for example through breathing or food . In humans, the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts are particularly often affected. The organ with the highest incidence of bacterial infections is the skin itself due to its nature as a border organ.

Many bacterial infections are harmless, but depending on the germ and, above all, depending on the location and immunity , they can also be very dangerous.

Routes of infection

Bacteria can reach the host via various infection routes, for example via contamination of food and water (see also waterborne diseases ) or (in the case of airborne transmission ) as droplet infection via the breath. If the immune system is weakened, the normal flora (as the entirety of the normally non-pathogenic microorganisms present on external and internal surfaces, which consists largely of bacteria) can lead to a so-called opportunistic disease .

The penetration takes place in turn

  • in intact barriers ( skin , mucous membranes ) initially active on a species-specific adhesion ( adherence ) of the bacteria by means of so-called. adhesins of receptors to their target structures.
  • passive in the case of damaged barriers.

List of human pathogenic bacteria

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Fritz H. Kaiser, Erik C. Böttger, Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Otto Haller, Johannes Eckert, Peter Deplazes: Pocket textbook medical microbiology. 11th revised and expanded edition, Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 2005, ISBN 3-13-444811-4 .
  2. Peter Fritsch: Dermatology and Venereology. Basics, clinic, atlas (= Springer textbook. ). 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-540-00332-0 .