Baseball Hall of Fame

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Baseball Hall of Fame
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, Cooperstown, NY.jpg
Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown
place Cooperstown , New York
Sports Museum
opening June 12, 1939
Number of visitors (annually) 350,000 (as of 2007)
Jeff Idelson (since 2008)

The Baseball Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for the greatest American baseball players . This museum is dedicated to the history of baseball and the heroes of the major leagues .

It is located in Cooperstown , a small town in New York State . According to legend, baseball was invented there in 1838 by Abner Doubleday ; today this legend is considered refuted. However, at the time the Hall of Fame was established in the 1930s, it was widely believed and therefore this location was chosen.

Admission rules

Entrance area of ​​the gallery

Every year, the newly elected members of the Hall of Fame are introduced in a ceremony and immortalized with a brass plaque in the Hall of Fame. The decision on this honor is made by the Baseball Writers Association of America , an association of sports journalists, which is why there are not uncommon cases in which a lot of criticism has been heard of decisions about the inclusion of players. It is usually about the fact that the person concerned simply cannot have the numbers (such as home runs , hits, etc.) that qualify him as a “Hall of Famer”.

The statutes stipulate that players can only be elected after a full five years since the end of their active period. However, managers (corresponds to the trainer in German terms), mascots, umpires (referees) and other personalities who have made special contributions to the sport, such as radio announcers, are also included.

Recording of players

Among Basbeall fans, "Hall of Fame" means not just the museum in Cooperstown (New York) , but the hall of fame of the players, managers, umpires , executives and pioneers who were able to anchor themselves in the Hall of Fame . The first 5 men elected in 1936 were Ty Cobb , Babe Ruth , Honus Wagner , Christy Mathewson, and Walter Johnson . About 20 more players were selected before they could all move in at the opening of the Hall of Fame on June 12, 1939. By January 2017, a total of 317 people had been selected, 220 of whom are former MLB players, 35 Negro League baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires and 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 Hall of Fame members were honored posthumously, 4 of whom died after the selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro League members, 29 were honored posthumously. The Hall of Fame also includes a female member, Effa Manlay .

The newest recruits to be honored on July 24, 2016 were players Mike Piazza and Ken Griffey Jr. The upcoming class of 2017 will be formally honored on July 30. This includes the executives John Schuerholz and Bud Selig , the players Jeff Bagwell , Tim Raines and Iván Rodríguez . The Baseball Hall of Fame also has 40 men for their reporting achievement with the Ford C. Frick Award, 67 with the JG Taylor Spink Award for achievement in sports journalism, and three more with the Buck O'Neil Lifetime Achievement Award for achievement honored in the sport. The Frick and Spink Awards honors are not members of the Hall of Fame, but they are recorded in an exhibit section of the Hall of Fame library. The O'Neil Award also has no membership in the Hall of Fame, but it was listed next to the permanent statue of the namesake O'Neil .

Selection process

The first class of members based on the votes from left to right: Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, Walter Johnson

Players are determined by an election at the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA for short; dt. Professional Association of Baseball Journalists ) or by the Veterans Committee , which currently consists of 4 sub-committees, each of which has candidates from different eras of the Baseball reviews and chooses. Five years after retiring from active sport, any player with at least 10 years of experience in the league can be elected by the BBWAA members. In the election, which usually contains 25 to 40 candidates in the final round, each eligible voter can vote for up to 10 players; Until the late 1950s, voters were encouraged to use all 10 votes. Any player who receives more than 75% of the vote is considered elected. A player who receives less than 5% of the vote is automatically excluded from future voting. In some cases the electoral committee has approved the players for the subsequent elections. From the 1990s onwards, however, such players were no longer eligible for the Hall of Fame. A rule change in 2001 threw that rule overboard and players with less than 5% of the vote were re-elected. While their names are no longer on the BBWAA's ballot papers, the Veterans Committee may consider them. Baseball players who received more than 5% but less than 75% of the vote are re-screened annually; however, this only applies for a maximum duration of 10 years (reduced from 15 years in 2015).

In special circumstances, some players were nominated for election even though they did not meet the criteria for selection. Addie Joss was elected in 1978, despite having only played 9 seasons before succumbing to meningitis. It should be noted that any eligible player who dies before his fifth year after his career retirement can also be considered if at least half a year has passed since his death. Roberto Clemente's 1973 call-up is the only case in which journalists put him up for election after his death on New Year's Day.

“Lineup for Yesterday

Z is for Zenith The summit of fame. These men are up there. These men are the game. "

“Lineup for yesterday

Z is for Zenith The Peak of Fame. These men are up there. These men are the game "

- Ogden Nash : Sports magazine (January 1949)

The rule to wait for 5 years was first introduced in 1954. By 1936 all players were eligible, even the active players. In the elections from 1937 to 1945 there was no waiting time, which meant that every retired player was eligible. However, the journalists were discouraged and chose current MLB players. From then on there was no formal rule prohibiting journalists from nominating active players for election. The journalists did not always obey the informal rules. For example, Joe DiMaggio got a vote in 1945. In the elections from 1946 to 1954, an official one-year waiting period came into effect. DiMaggio withdrew in 1951 and only became eligible for election in 1953. The current rule, which provides for a five-year waiting period, has been in use since 1954, although an exception was made for Joe DiMaggio because of his strong support, which is why he became eligible after 4 years.

Contrary to popular belief, no exception was made for Lou Gehrig because he met all the requirements at the time and there was no waiting time. Thus he would be eligible for the next regular election after he resigned in 1939. The BBWAA decided to make a special election at the 1939 Winter Meetings in Cincinnati. To be more precise, Gehrig was to be elected (probably because he was terminally ill and it was uncertain whether he would make it through another election). No one else was in this election and the counts were never published. Because there were no elections in 1940 or 1941, that particular election was approved and Gehrig was allowed to enter the Hall of Fame alive.

If a player fails to be elected by the BBWAA within 20 years of retiring from a career, there is an option to be elected by the Veterans Committee. Changes were made in 2010 and 2016. Now it is possible to vote for all players who cannot be elected by the BBWAA. From 2011 to 2016 every candidate could be considered every 3 years. Now it depends on when you achieved your greatest accomplishments.

From 2008 to 2010 the following changes were made by the Hall of Fame in July 2007, the Veterans Committee. These changes established three different bodies, which three different people can elect:

  • A committee elects managers and umpires every even year. This body voted twice - 2007 for the 2008 election and 2009 for the 2010 election
  • A committee voted every even year for managers and trainers.
  • The Pre-World War II Players Committee should elect players every five years whose careers began in 1942 or earlier. This body gave its only vote for the 2009 election

Negro Leagues players have been considered several times since 1971. In 2005 the Hall of Fame published a study of African-American players between the late 19th century and their inclusion in the Major Leagues in 1947. In an election in January 2006, a total of 17 players from the Negro Leagues were selected.

Every year, endless debates arise among baseball fans about the candidates. Even players who were elected several years ago are the subject of discussions as to whether they even deserved to be elected. For example Bill James' book Whatever Happened to the Hall of Fame? goes into detail here.

Changes to the Veterans Committee Process

The decisions and composition of the Veterans Committee have been controversial at times. As an example, members of the committee were selected more often instead of choosing obviously more suitable candidates.

In 2001, the Veterans Committee was reformed to compensate for living Hall of Fame members. The revised committee held three elections, in 2003 and 2007 for players and non-players, and in 2005 for players only. No person was elected at the time, leading to criticism from observers as to whether the new committee would ever select a player. The committee members, most of whom are Hall of Fame members, have been accused of being averse to other candidates in hopes of highlighting their own worth. After no election in the third consecutive election, Hall of Fame member Mike Schmidt said in 2007, “The same thing happens every year. The current members want to maintain their prestige as much as possible and are reluctant to open the doors. ”In 2007 the committee and selection process was reorganized again; the main committee included all living members of the Hall of Fame and they selected a reduced number of candidates whose careers began after 1943. Separate bodies such as sports journalists and writers could elect managers, executives and players from earlier eras.

In the first elections, which on the condition of 2007 many, two managers and three executives were elected. The next ballot was held in December 2008 as part of the 2009 election. The Main Committee did not elect a player, while the Pre-World War II Players Committee voted Joe Gordon as the final and final player.

Every eligible person who cannot be considered by the BBWAA has been marked by the following eras in which they achieved their greatest successes:

  • Pre-Integration Era (1871-1946)
  • Golden Era (1947–1972)
  • Expansion Era (1973 and after)

The Hall of Fame used the BBWAA's historical overview to formulate the ballot papers for each era, 12 individual for the Expansion Era and 10 for the others. The Hall of Fame Board of Directors assembled a committee of 16 voters for each era, comprised of members of the HoF, senior executives, and baseball historians. Each committee sat and voted at the baseball winter meetings every three years. The Golden Era Committee had its first election in 2010 with Ron Santo, who was the first player to be elected under this new procedure.

In July 2016, the Hall of Fame published a redesign of the time slots. Four new committees were formed:

  • Today's Game (1988-today)
  • Modern baseball (1970–1987)
  • Golden Days (1950-1969)
  • Early Baseball (1871-1949)

The museum

According to the Hall of Fame, the museum has about 300,000 visitors annually, bringing it to a total of more than 14 million guests. Only some of the 40,000 objects in the collection, 3 million archive documents (such as newspaper clippings and photos) and 140,000 baseball cards are on display.

The Hall of Fame has seen a notable drop in visitor numbers in recent years. A 2013 report on the city of Cooperstown and its association with baseball attributes the decline in part to the Cooperstown Dreams Park youth baseball complex in Hartwick, about five miles away. In Dreams Park, 17,000 players take part in intensive gaming for one week every summer. The complex includes sleeping facilities for the players, but their parents or grandparents must stay elsewhere. Before Dreams Park opened, many different visitors came to Cooperstown to spend the night each week, families are now staying in the town for a longer period and probably only visit the Hall of Fame once.

First floor

  • Baseball in Movies shows baseball movie clips on a screen
  • The Bullpen Theater is decorated with pictures of relief pitchers
  • The Inductee Row shows images of members of the Hall of Fame, which were awarded from 1937 to 1939.
  • The Perez-Steele Art Gallery displays all media related to baseball. Dick Perez served as an artist on numerous other projects in the National Baseball Hall of Fame Museum for over 20 years (beginning in 1981).
  • The Plaque Gallery is the most recognizable side of the museum and shows all honored members of the Hall of Fame.
  • The Sandlot Kids Clubhouse has several interactive screens for young children.
  • Scribes and Mikemen honors the JG Taylor Spink Award and the Ford C. Frick Award winners and dedicates a photo to them. There are also several artifacts related to baseball journalism.
  • An educational Gallery (Gallery Education) leads school groups and summer artifacts are shown from the collection of the museum.

Second floor

  • The Grandstand Theater shows a 12-minute multimedia film. The 200-seat theater, which is equipped with exact copies of the stadium's seats, is intended to represent the old Comiskey Park.
  • The Game is the main attraction on the second floor. Most of the artifacts are presented here. The Game is set up as a timeline that deals with the beginnings of baseball and leads to the baseball we know today. There are several subsidiary branches of the side ruler:
    • The Babe Ruth Room
    • Diamond Dreams (Women in Baseball)
    • ¡Viva Baseball! (bilingual, in English and Spanish, baseball in Latin America)
    • Pride and Passion (Negro Leagues Exhibition)
    • Taking The Field (19th Century Baseball)
  • Whole New Ballgame, the newest permanent exhibition, which opened in 2015 and is located in the Janetschek Gallery. This exhibition completes the timeline of the past 45 years leading up to the game we know today.
  • The Today's Game exhibition is set up like a baseball clubhouse with 30 glass cases. The MLB accessories such as the teams' jerseys are in these showcases.

Third floor

  • Autumn Glory is dedicated to out-of-season baseball and has many artifacts and copies of the World Series rings.
  • Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream
  • A theater area where films are shown continuously.
  • One for the Books shows all the records in baseball today.
    • BBWAA awards: Copies of numerous awards distributed by the BBWAA.
    • All World Series rings from 1900 to today
    • Inductee database , a kind of lexicon which contains statistics from the members.
    • Programs for all World Series

Pete Rose controversy

Pete Rose, 2008

Pete Rose holds several US professional baseball records, including the most hits and the largest number of games played. Rose played 500 games each in five different positions between first baseman and leftfielder . However, in 1990 Rose entered into an agreement with the Commissioner of Baseball , by virtue of which he was excluded from any further participation in the sport of baseball. In return, the commissioner decided not to publish the results of an investigation against Rose, in the course of which, according to the commissioner, sufficient evidence had been found that Pete Rose had bet on baseball games, including those of his own team, during his time as team manager . In addition, some of these bets were placed with bookmakers whose relationships with the underworld were considered proven. Since the " Black Sox Scandal " of 1919, such bets have been considered a mortal sin and a death sentence for any career in US baseball.

There has been heated argument in the USA for years whether this decision can be overlooked and Rose can be inducted into the Hall of Fame . Many believe that with Pete Rose's tremendous career achievements, mercy must be given. Others countered that he never openly admitted his violation. Rather, he has vehemently denied this for years. Even in a book published a few years ago, he makes only very vague comments on the subject. An open confession of guilt, according to this contrary opinion, is an absolute prerequisite for granting him the honor of being accepted as a repentant sinner.

See also

Web links

Commons : Baseball Hall of Fame  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ President of the National Baseball Hall of Fame ( Memento April 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  2. News. Retrieved June 20, 2017 (English).
  3. Class of 2016 Welcomed to Cooperstown by Huge Induction Ceremony Crowd . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  4. ^ Hall of Fame Class of 2017 . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  5. ^ Ford C. Frick Award . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  6. ^ JG Taylor Spink Award . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  7. ^ Buck O'Neil Award . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  8. ^ Buck O'Neil Award . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  9. ^ Hall of Fame Announces Change to BBWAA Voting Electorate . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  10. ^ Baseball Hall of Fame changes its induction rules. Retrieved June 20, 2017 (American English).
  11. News. Retrieved June 20, 2017 (English).
  12. ^ Hall of Fame Makes Series of Announcements . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  13. ^ Hall of Fame Makes Series of Announcements . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  14. Murray Chass: BASEBALL; More Vets Eligible For Hall In Baseball . In: The New York Times . August 7, 2001 ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  15. BBTF's Primate Studies Discussion :: Same Old Story. Retrieved June 20, 2017 (English).
  16. January 14, 2003 - A Brief History of the Veterans Committee. (No longer available online.) November 1, 2006, archived from the original on November 1, 2006 ; Retrieved June 20, 2017 .
  17. John Leo; John Leo Is A. Contributing Writer For Time Magazine: VIEWS OF SPORT; HOUSECLEANING PLAN FOR THE HALL OF FAME . In: The New York Times . January 24, 1988 ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).
  18. MLB on Yahoo! Sports - News, Scores, Standings, Rumors, Fantasy Games. Retrieved June 20, 2017 (American English).
  19. ^ Hall of Fame Makes Series of Announcements . In: Baseball Hall of Fame . ( [accessed June 20, 2017]).