Caloboletus calopus ( caloboletus calopus )
Caloboletus is a fungal genus of the family of Dickröhrlingsverwandten (Boletaceae). Characteristic is the combination of features of a yellow tube layer, olive-brown spore powder, smooth-walled spores, a hat cover layer made of interwoven mushroom threads and a bluish and clearly bitter-tasting meat.
The hat is usually pale, whitish to smoky gray or clay to buff colored. Ocher / olive tones are common, but rarely red. Gradually the hat is getting darker. He doesn't blue when injured. Except for Caloboletus firmus with its orange to red pores (tube mouths), the tubes and pores initially have a lemon to sulfur yellow, later an olive color and blue when printed. The central stem is pale yellow to yellow, with or without tones of red, and usually reticulated. The network is sometimes reduced or even absent. The whitish to pale lemon yellow flesh ( trama ) sometimes shows red tones in the base of the stem and turns blue in the cut. Because of the cyclocalopine contained in the fruiting bodies, it tastes bitter and weaker with age.
The hat cover layer ( pileipellis ) consists of interwoven thread hyphae . The smooth, slightly thick-walled spores are typically tubular, almost spindle-shaped, elliptical to somewhat elongated. In potassium hydroxide they appear almost hyaline and in Melzer's reagent they appear yellowish-brown. The hymenophoral trama is different bilateral and corresponds to the boletus subtype. Buckle connections on the partitions ( septa ) of the fungal threads are missing. The sterile elements on the tube surface ( pleurocystids ) and the tube mouths ( cheilocystids ) are bottle-shaped and thin-walled.
The representatives of the genus are mainly found in subtropical and temperate regions of the Holarctic .
The genus Caloboletus comprises 12 species worldwide, 4 of which occur or are expected in Europe.
boletus Caloboletus kluzakii
Bitter boletus with roots,
The genus corresponds quite well to the section Calopodes from the genus of boletus in the view of Lannoy & Estadès. According to the phylogenetic studies by Binder & Hibbett 2006, Gelardi et al. 2013, Nuhn et al. 2013 and Wu et al. In 2014, the species in the Calopodes section form a new genus in the Boletaceae family.
Origin of name
The genus name Caloboletus is derived from the Greek word calos "beautiful, nice" and refers to the beautiful red hues of the stem, as found in many species of the genus.
- Kuan Zhao, Gang Wu, Bang Feng, Zhu L. Yang: Molecular phylogeny of Caloboletus (Boletaceae) and a new species in East Asia . In: Mycological Progress . tape 13 , no. 4 , 2014, p. 1127-1136 , doi : 10.1007 / s11557-014-1001-3 .
- Veronika Hellwig, Johannes Dasenbrock, Claudia Gräf, Lydia Kahner, Susanne Schumann, Wolfgang Steglich: Calopins and Cyclocalopins - Bitter Principles from Boletus calopus and Related Mushrooms . In: European Journal of Organic Chemistry . tape 2002 , no. 17 , p. 2895-2904 , doi : 10.1002 / 1099-0690 (200209) 2002: 17 <2895 :: AID-EJOC2895> 3.0.CO; 2-S .
- Alfredo Vizzini: Index Fungorum no.146. May 10, 2014, accessed on January 21, 2014 .
- Jonathan L. Frank: Index Fungorum No. 194. October 24, 2014, accessed January 21, 2014 .
- Eric Strittmatter: The genus Boletus . In: fungiworld.com. Retrieved January 21, 2015 .
- Manfred Binder, David S. Hibbett: Molecular systematics and biological diversification of Boletales . In: Mycologia . tape 98 (6) . Mycological Society of America, 2006, pp. 971–981 , doi : 10.3852 / mycologia.98.6.971 ( PDF; 2.49 MB ).
- Matteo Gelardi, et al .: Boletus sinopulverulentus, a new species from Shaanxi Province (central China) and notes on Boletus and Xerocomus . In: Sydowia . tape 65 , no. 1 , 2013.
- Mitchell E. Nuhn, Manfred Binder, Andy FS Taylor, Roy E. Halling, David S. Hibbett: Phylogenetic overview of the Boletineae . In: Fungal Biology . tape 117 , no. 7–8 , 2013, pp. 479–511 , doi : 10.1016 / j.funbio.2013.04.008 ( PDF; 2.20 MB ).
- Gang Wu, Bang Feng, Jianping Xu, Xue-Tai Zhu, Yan-Chun Li, Nian-Kai Zeng, Md. Iqbal Hosen, Zhu L. Yang: Molecular phylogenetic analyzes redefine seven major clades and reveal 22 new generic lineages in the fungal family Boletaceae . In: Fungal Diversity . tape 69 , no. 1 , 2014, p. 93-115 , doi : 10.1007 / s13225-014-0283-8 .