Dmitri Ivanovich Blochinzew

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Dmitri Ivanovich Blochinzew ( Russian Дмитрий Иванович Блохинцев , English transliteration Dmitrii Ivanovich Blokhintsev * December 29, 1907 . Jul / 11. January  1908 greg. In Moscow ; †  27. January 1979 ) was a Soviet physicist.

life and work

Blochinzew attended the technical college for industrial economics and studied 1926 to 1930 physics at the Lomonossow University in Moscow. He studied with Leonid Mandelstam , Sergei Iwanowitsch Wawilow , Nikolai Lusin , Dmitri Fjodorowitsch Jegorow and Igor Tamm, among others . He then went to the Research Institute for Applied Chemistry (NIIPh), where he completed his habilitation under Tamm in 1934 (Russian doctorate). In 1935 he moved to the Lebedew Institute (FIAN). At the same time he became a professor of theoretical physics at Lomonosov University. When Tamm was temporarily deposed there in 1937, he temporarily headed the theory department at FIAN. From 1951 he was head of the nuclear research center at the Obninsk nuclear power plant , where, under his leadership, a first Soviet prototype nuclear power plant with an electrical output of 5 MW went into operation in 1954. Blochintsev received the Lenin Prize for this in 1957 . From 1956 to 1965 he was the first director of the Nuclear Research Institute in Dubna and then from 1965 head of the laboratory for theoretical physics in Dubna. In Dubna, a pulsed reactor (IBR) designed by Blochinzew in the mid-1950s was also put into operation in 1960, followed in 1984 by the IBR-2, as a neutron source, for example for solid-state research.

Blochinzew is also known as the author of a quantum mechanics textbook and he also wrote a book on the philosophy of quantum mechanics, where he represented an interpretation in the sense of Marxist-Leninist materialism. His quantum mechanics textbook, first published in 1944, was translated into many languages ​​and he received the Soviet State Prize for it. In addition to reactor physics and quantum mechanics, he dealt with many other areas of physics such as solid state physics, nuclear physics, quantum field theory, nonlinear optics and acoustics. In 1938 he presented the derivation of the Lamb shift in a seminar , in which he proceeded similarly to Hans Bethe later in his well-known work. Since the Journal for Experimental and Theoretical Physics declined to publish, his contribution did not appear in a collection of his work until 1958. During the Second World War he became a leading acoustics expert, including for the localization of submarines and airplanes with acoustic means. For this work he received the Order of Lenin (1946).

Blochintsev was a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR since 1958 . He was scientific advisor to the UN Secretary General and from 1963 Vice President and 1966 to 1969 President of the Union of Pure and Applied Physics ( IUPAP ). In 1964 he was elected a member of the Leopoldina .


  • The basics of quantum mechanics . Harri Deutsch, 7th edition 1977 (first as a German translation in Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1953, English translation Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Boston 1964)
  • The birth of the peaceful atom . German publishing house for basic industry, Leipzig 1985
  • The philosophy of quantum mechanics . Reidel, Dordrecht 1968 (Russian 1966)
  • Acoustics of a nonhomogeneous moving media . National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Washington DC 1956 (Russian 1946)


Web links


  1. An early influence was also the Russian rocket pioneer Konstantin Eduardowitsch Ziolkowski , with whom he corresponded
  2. List of members Leopoldina, Dmitrij I. Blochincev (with picture)