Dominant seventh chord
Example: In C major the fifth degree is G. The notes of the corresponding dominant seventh chord - from the corresponding Mixolydian scale - are GHdf.
Historically, the dominant seventh chord, like other seventh chords, was first used by high baroque composers . (Although there were already harmonious formations before, around 1529 by Pierre Attaignant , which - in the Renaissance lute by continuing to sound open strings or bass notes - can sound like a dominant seventh chord).
Since the dominant occurs preferentially as a major chord (even with a minor key, although the first third is not part of the scale, see Dominant ), the dominant seventh chords of C major and C minor do not differ from one another.
The dominant seventh chord has a basic position and three inversions :
- Basic position ( root note in the bass )
- Sixth fifth chord ( third in bass)
- Third quarto chord ( fifth in bass)
- Second chord ( seventh in bass)
The general function name of the chord type is D 7 . D stands for the function of the dominant , not for the tone d.
In the key of C major, the dominant seventh chord is on the root g and is therefore designated there with the chord symbol G 7 .
The dominant seventh chord contains the diminished triad on the VIIth degree of the root key. This is called the shortened dominant seventh chord in functional theory and can be used instead of the full dominant seventh chord. Because of its ambiguity, it is particularly suitable for modulating . The same applies, by the way, to the shortened dominant seventh chord with a minor ninth , which corresponds to a diminished four-note chord on the seventh degree.
In jazz, the layering of thirds in the dominant seventh chord can be continued with the minor, major or excessive ninth (the latter is sometimes called “nine of the sharp” due to the symbol ♯ 9), with the undecimal and the treadmill (7-9-11-13). The fifth can be altered a semitone up or down .
Dissolution of the dominant seventh chord
As a rule, the dominant seventh chord is resolved as follows (see the note example above):
- The major third of D 7 (the leading tone ) is always resolved a semitone step up into the root (or octave) of the tonic.
- The minor seventh of D 7 (the sliding note ) always goes a minor second down into the third of the tonic. (If the seventh is in the bass, a sixth chord is inevitable .)
- The fifth of D 7 goes to the root of the tonic.
- The keynote of D 7 either remains (as the middle part) or jumps (in the bass) to the keynote of the tonic.
In jazz improvisation on a dominant seventh chord, the tone reserve of a scale that is related to the dominant seventh chord is used. These are mostly scales that, in addition to the four tones of the dominant seventh chord (root, third, fifth and seventh), contain other tones that are closely related to the underlying (diatonic) scale, i.e., in addition to the chord tones of this four-note chord, only diatonic tones are used become. Exceptions are the altered scale and the whole tone scale (GT), in which the fifth is missing in each case, but which nonetheless allow the dominant to come into play, since only the fundamental, third and seventh are decisive for the sound of the dominant, and therefore the fifth replaced, so the chord can be substituted . In jazz, ♭ 9, ♯9, ♯11, ♭ 13 are often used as tension tones to supplement the fundamental, third and seventh .
|Mixolydian scale||9, 13||1, 2, 3, (4), 5, 6, ♭ 7|
|Mixo ♭ 9||♭ 9, 13||1, ♭ 2, 3, (4), 5, 6, ♭ 7|
|Mixo # 11||9, # 11, 13||1, 2, 3, # 4, 5, 6, ♭ 7|
|Mixo ♭ 13||9, ♭ 13||1, 2, 3, (4), 5, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|HM5||♭ 9, ♭ 13||1, ♭ 2, 3, (4), 5, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|HM5 + # 9||♭ 9, # 9, ♭ 13||1, ♭ 2, # 2, 3, (4), 5, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|HD3||♭ 9, # 9, ♭ 13||1, ♭ 2, # 2, 3, 5, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|altered scale||♭ 9, # 9, # 11, ♭ 13||1, ♭ 2, # 2, 3, # 4, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|GT||9, # 11, ♭ 13||1, 2, 3, # 4, ♭ 6, ♭ 7|
|HTGT||♭ 9, # 9, # 11, 13||1, ♭ 2, ♭ 3, 3, # 4, 5, 6, ♭ 7|
An overview of the tension tones ("Tensions") that occur in the scales that are mentioned below can be found in the table on the right.
A scale related to the function of the dominant seventh chord in question is called a “scale cliché” in jazz.
The following scale clichés are used when the dominant seventh chord dissolves in a dominant function to a diatonic, i.e. its own scale, chord (as dominant with function V7 / I or as secondary dominant with function V7 / II, V7 / III, V7 / IV, V7 / V or V7 / VI):
- When resolving to a diatonic major chord (V7 / I, V7 / IV or V7 / V), the Mixolydian scale is typically used, or alternatively - except for V7 / IV - also the HM5 scale or HM5 + # 9 or the altered one Scale , with V7 / V also Mixo # 11 . Partly for V7 / IV as well as for V7 / V the following options are given: Mixo ♭ 9, Mixo # 11, Mixo ♭ 13 and HD3 .
- When resolving to a diatonic minor chord (V7 / II, V7 / III or V7 / VI), typically the HM5 scale or HM5 + # 9 or the altered scale is used; with V7 / II also Mixo ♭ 13. Sometimes HD3 is also specified.
The following clichés are used if the dominant seventh chord results from a tritone substitution (as a substitute dominant with the function SubV / I, SubV / II, SubV / III, SubV / IV, SubV / V or SubV / VI):
- Typically Mixo # 11 is used here as a scale cliché (the Mixolydian scale would also be possible, but is unusual here); with SubV / I, SubV / IV or SubV / V the altered scale can also be used.
- Typically Mixo # 11 is used here, as this scale is formed by adding only diatonic tones to the chord tones of this ♭ VII7 four-note chord.
If no clear tonal center can be determined, the Mixolydian scale is highlighted.
- For jazz improvisation using chord progressions (e.g. II-VI or VI-II-VI and variants thereof) see also: II-VI # Jazz improvisation
- Wieland Ziegenrücker: General music theory with questions and tasks for self-control. German Publishing House for Music, Leipzig 1977; Paperback edition: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag, and Musikverlag B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33003-3 , pp. 117-120.
- D. de la Motte: Harmony. Bärenreiter Verlag, 3rd edition 1980, ISBN 3-7618-0540-3 , p. 54 f.
- Hans Dagobert Bruger (Ed.): Pierre Attaignant, two- and three-part solo pieces for the lute. Möseler Verlag, Wolfenbüttel / Zurich 1926, pp. 4 and 30 f.
- Dominant. In: Willibald Gurlitt , Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht (Ed.): Riemann Music Lexicon. Material part. 12th, completely revised edition. B. Schott's Sons, Mainz 1967.
- modulation. In: Willi Apel : Harvard Dictionary of Music. 2nd edition revised and enlarged, 4th printing. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA 1970.
- Tensions given in the table based on: Mathias Löffler: Rock & Jazz Harmony . AMA, Brühl 2018, ISBN 978-3-89922-239-5 , p. 412.
- The Avoid Note (4) is in brackets.
- Frank Sikora: New Jazz Harmony. Understand, listen, play. From theory to improvisation. 9th edition. Schott, Mainz 2012, ISBN 3-7957-5124-1 , p. 115.
- Mathias Löffler: Rock & Jazz Harmony . AMA, Brühl 2018, ISBN 978-3-89922-239-5 , p. 412.
- Frank Sikora: New Jazz Harmony. Understand, listen, play. From theory to improvisation. 9th edition. Schott, Mainz 2012, ISBN 3-7957-5124-1 , p. 128.
- Frank Sikora: New Jazz Harmony. Understand, listen, play. From theory to improvisation. 9th edition. Schott, Mainz 2012, ISBN 3-7957-5124-1 , p. 128 and p. 132.
- Frank Sikora: New Jazz Harmony. Understand, listen, play. From theory to improvisation. 9th edition. Schott, Mainz 2012, ISBN 3-7957-5124-1 , p. 138.
- Frank Sikora: New Jazz Harmony. Understand, listen, play. From theory to improvisation. 9th edition. Schott, Mainz 2012, ISBN 3-7957-5124-1 , p. 128 and p. 116–121.